REPOSITÓRIO DIGITAL DA PRODUÇÃO TÉCNICO CIENTÍFICA

 

 

 

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O Repositório Digital do IPEN é um equipamento institucional de acesso aberto, criado com o objetivo de reunir, preservar, disponibilizar e conferir maior visibilidade à Produção Científica publicada pelo Instituto, desde sua criação em 1956.

Operando, inicialmente como uma base de dados referencial o Repositório foi disponibilizado na atual plataforma, em junho de 2015. No Repositório está disponível o acesso ao conteúdo digital de artigos de periódicos, eventos, nacionais e internacionais, livros, capítulos, dissertações, teses e relatórios técnicos. [Saiba mais]

 

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  • IPEN-DOC 25131

    POLO, IVON O. ; SANTOS, WILLIAM S. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Modelling the absorbed dose rate of the beta standard BSS2 147Pm source. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 140, p. 83-86, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.06.015

    Abstract: The dosimetric measurements of 147Pm beta radiation beams have limitations due to their low energy, low dose rate, great dispersion and attenuation in air or tissue. In this work, the Monte Carlo model was developed for a 147Pm absorbed dose rate determination. This model consists of an extrapolation chamber and a 147Pm beta radiation source. Moreover, the absorbed dose rate was determined by experimental measurements and the MCNP Monte Carlo code was used. The relative number of particles that crossed the radioactive source window and the particles that crossed the extrapolation chamber entrance window were determined. The source fluence spectrum was also determined. The results of the simulation and the experimental calculations are in agreement with the absorbed dose rate from the PTB calibration certificate. The results obtained are considered acceptable, and they agree within the uncertainties. The difference between the experimental result and that from the Monte Carlo model, compared to that from the calibration certificate, was only 0.8% in both cases.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25130

    POLO, IVON O. ; SANTOS, WILLIAM de S. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Determination of correction factors in beta radiation beams using Monte Carlo method. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 140, p. 50-54, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.06.011

    Abstract: The absorbed dose rate is the main characterization quantity for beta radiation. The extrapolation chamber is considered the primary standard instrument. To determine absorbed dose rates in beta radiation beams, it is necessary to establish several correction factors. In this work, the correction factors for the backscatter due to the collecting electrode and to the guard ring, and the correction factor for Bremsstrahlung in beta secondary standard radiation beams are presented. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo method was applied. The results obtained are considered acceptable, and they agree within the uncertainties. The differences between the backscatter factors determined by the Monte Carlo method and those of the ISO standard were 0.6%, 0.9% and 2.04% for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm sources respectively. The differences between the Bremsstrahlung factors determined by the Monte Carlo method and those of the ISO were 0.25%, 0.6% and 1% for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm sources respectively.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25129

    PILLIS, MARINA F. ; OLIVEIRA, MARA C.L. de; ANTUNES, RENATO A.. Surface chemistry and the corrosion behavior of magnetron sputtered niobium oxide films in sulfuric acid solution. Applied Surface Science, v. 462, p. 344-352, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.08.123

    Abstract: In this work, magnetron sputtered Nb2O5 films were obtained at two different deposition times. The surface chemistry of the deposited layers was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior was assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization tests in 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF solution at room temperature. The Nb5+/Nb4+ ratio decreased with the deposition time, leading to a higher surface activity for the film obtained at 30 min. This result was confirmed by its lower impedance values and higher current densities when compared to the 15′-film. Surface chemistry played a major role on the corrosion behavior of the sputtered films and can be tailored by the deposition time.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25128

    PESQUEIRA, E.I.O.; MUSCI, C.S.; ROSSI, J.L. . Influence of the geometric characteristics of the mini-implants on mechanicals properties using artificial bone similar to anterior, middle and posterior regions of the jaws. Materials Science Forum, v. 930, p. 276-282, 2018. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.930.276

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the best torque of insertion and removal of mini-implants with a twin screw design (compact and self-drilling) into artificial bones with density and trabecular thickness, similar to anterior, middle and posterior regions of the jaws. Observation of the mini-implants surface using electron microscopy was performed before and after the tests. The torque values obtained during the insertion and removal was measured by digital torque wrench. The analyzed results led to the conclusion that the insertion and removal torques were larger with increase in bone density and cortical thickness. The design of the threads of the miniimplants influenced the insertion torque. Threads with smaller pitch increased the value of insertion torque. The anterior bone drilling installation reduces the insertion torque independent of bone density. Torque increased mainly by increasing the bone density and not necessarily with increased cortical thickness suggesting that the bone density of the trabecular bone must be considered in designing the installation of mini-implants.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25127

    ORTIZ, NILCE ; LIMA, GISELLE N.S. ; NICOLAU, THAMIRES S.; REIS, ANNA C.S. . Solar/TiO2 photodecomposition and adsorption of tertiary antibiotics systems. International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research, v. 3, n. 6, p. 76-83, 2018.

    Abstract: The antibiotic residues are present usually in mixtures in soils and rivers sediment in the range of ng L-1 to μg L-1 around the world and cause, among many things, the proliferation of super-resistant bacteria. The study analyzes the efficiency of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the solar photodecomposition of binary and tertiary systems of cephalexin, amoxicillin, and oxytetracicline from contaminated water discharges. The calculated kinetic constants of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion confirm the better agreement with the pseudo-second-order. The isotherms parameters and constants of Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson (R-P) indicated the Langmuir and R-P isotherms have better correspondence, and the experimental results indicate 45% of removal percentage of antibiotics mixture in just 120 min of time stirring. The amoxicillin has the higher removal percentages followed by cephalexin and the lowest percentage was for oxytetraciclin. This behavior is explained by the chemical bond energy of the chemical structure, lower for amoxicillin increasing until the oxytetraccilin structure. The water treatment using Advanced Oxidative Processes - POA with TiO2 and solar radiation at different concentrations an mixtures of antibiotics followed by adsorption process rises as an efficient and ready to use water treatment to reach better water quality for reuse purposes.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25126

    OLIVEIRA, J.R.B.; FINOCCHIARO, P.; AGODI, C.; BOZTOSUN, I.; CAPPUZZELLO, F.; FARIA, P.N. de; GASQUES, L.; LINARES, R.; MEDINA, N.H.; MENDES, D.R.; MORALLES, M. ; SOLACKI, S.O.; ZAGATTO, V.A.B.; ALCANTARA-NUNEZ, J.A.; GONZALEZ-ALVAREZ, M.A.; AGUIAR, V.A.P.; ESCUDEIRO, R.; KURMAN, V.. New spectrometer projects for challenging particle-gamma measurements of nuclear reactions. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v. 1056, 2018. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1056/1/012040

    Abstract: Two new gamma spectrometer projects are under development, both with some challenging technical characteristics in common, one for the investigation of weakly bound nuclear beam reactions at near barrier energies, and the other for the measurement of double charge exchange reactions in the 15-70 MeV per nucleon range. The first one is being developed and tested at the IFUSP, and the other is going to be built and installed at the LNS, INFN, under the NUMEN collaboration. The main characteristics of the two projects are presented and discussed.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25125

    OLIVEIRA, JUSTINE P.R. ; MELENDEZ-ORTIZ, H.I.; BUCIO, EMILIO; ALVES, PATRICIA T.; LIMA, MAYARA I.S.; GOULART, LUIZ R.; MATHOR, MONICA B. ; VARCA, GUSTAVO H.C. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . Current methods applied to biomaterials – characterization approaches, safety assessment and biological international standards. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, v. 18, n. 4, p. 256-274, 2018. DOI: 10.2174/1568026618666180410151518

    Abstract: Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physical-chemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25124

    NASCIMENTO, C.R.; ASFORA, V.K.; GONCALVES, J.A.C. ; KHOURY, H.J.; BARROS, V.S.M.; KALIL, L.F.; BUENO, C.C. . The performance of a multi guard ring (MGR) diode for clinical electron beams dosimetry. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 141, p. 112-117, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.07.002

    Abstract: The dosimetric response of a multi guard ring structure (MGR) diode has been studied with clinical electron beam energies from 5 MeV to 15 MeV. The results showed that the MGR dose response is linear in the range of 5–320 cGy and presents reproducibility with variation coefficients less than 0.4%. The field output factors measured with the MGR agreed within 2% with those measured with an ionization chamber. This study evidences that this diode can be used for clinical electron beam dosimetry.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25123

    NASCIMENTO, MAURICIO S.; FRANCO, ANTONIO T.R.; FRAJUCA, CARLOS; NAKAMOTO, FRANCISCO Y.; SANTOS, GIVANILDO A. dos; COUTO, ANTONIO A. . An experimental study of the solidification thermal parameters influence upon microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu alloys. Materials Research, v. 21, n. 5, 2018. DOI: 10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2017-0864

    Abstract: Metals solidification involves the transformation of the molten metal back into the solid state. Solidification structures impact heavily on the final product's characteristics. The microstructure effects on metallic alloys properties have been highlighted in various studies and particularly the dendrite arm spacing influence upon the mechanical properties such as tensile strength has been reported. In the present investigation, Al-10wt%Si-2wt%Cu and Al-10wt%Si-5wt%Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward under transient heat flow conditions. The experimental results include solidification thermal parameters such as tip growth rate and cooling rate, optical microscopy, volume fraction of the eutectic mixture, primary dendritic arm spacing and ultimate tensile strength. Experimental growth laws of primary dendrite arm spacing as a function of the solidification thermal parameters are proposed. The Hall-Petch mathematical expressions were used to correlate the ultimate tensile strength as a function of the primary dendritic arm spacing. It was found that the alloy with higher copper content had a more refined structure. More refined structures had higher ultimate tensile strength values.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25122

    NANDENHA, J.; FONTES, E.H.; PIASENTIN, R.M. ; FONSECA, F.C. ; NETO, A.O. . Direct oxidation of methane at low temperature using Pt/C, Pd/C, Pt/C-ATO and Pd/C-ATO electrocatalysts prepared by sodium borohydride reduction process. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, v. 46, n. 9, p. 1137-1145, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/S1872-5813(18)30046-X

    Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to characterize the voltammetric profiles of the Pt/C, Pt/C-ATO, Pd/C and Pd/C-ATO electrocatalysts and study their catalytic activities for methane oxidation in an acidic electrolyte at 25°C and in a direct methane proton exchange membrane fuel cell at 80°C. The electrocatalysts prepared also were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diffractograms of the Pt/C and Pt/C-ATO electrocatalysts show four peaks associated with Pt face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, and the diffractograms of Pd/C and Pd/C-ATO show four peaks associated with Pd face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. For Pt/C-ATO and Pd/C-ATO, characteristic peaks of cassiterite (SnO2) phase are observed, which are associated with Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) used as supports for electrocatalysts. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of all electrocatalysts after adsorption of methane show that there is a current increase during the anodic scan. However, this effect is more pronounced for Pt/C-ATO and Pd/C-ATO. This process is related to the oxidation of the adsorbed species through the bifunctional mechanism, where ATO provides oxygenated species for the oxidation of CO or HCO intermediates adsorbed in Pt or Pd sites. From in situ ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared) experiments for all electrocatalysts prepared the formation of HCO or CO intermediates are observed, which indicates the production of carbon dioxide. Polarization curves at 80°C in a direct methane fuel cell (DMEFC) show that Pd/C and Pt/C electroacatalysts have superior performance to Pd/C-ATO and Pt/C-ATO in methane oxidation.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25120

    MUTARELLI, RITA de C. ; LIMA, ANA C. de S. ; SABUNDJIAN, GAIANE . Comparative study of methodologies for measuring corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Development Research, v. 8, n. 6, p. 20894-20903, 2018.

    Abstract: The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a current issue increasingly present in the strategic planning of the companies. Although managers of public or private organizations have turned their attention to social and environmental issues in their strategic actions, measuring the social responsibility of a company is not an easy task. This paper aims to observe the eight most relevant methodologies of CSR measurement and establish a comparative analysis among them by considering the scope and feasibility of each methodology. The most relevant CSR methodologies were selected. The main characteristics of each of the eight tools were observed and compared. The results demonstrated that although most methodologies have strong measuring characteristics the Ethos Indicators consist of the most effective tool for measuring CSR mainly regarding the institutional issues

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  • IPEN-DOC 25119

    MURATA, H.M.; MORALLES, M. ; BONIFACIO, D.A.B.. Evaluation of digital methods for energy calculation and timing pick-off in positron emission tomography. Journal of Instrumentation, v. 13, n. P09024, 2018. DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/13/09/P09024

    Abstract: Traditionally, pulse processing in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been based on analog or discrete circuits forming a decentralized processing system. However, there is a convergence for digital and integrated implementations due to the characteristics of the modern electronic devices which are real-time processing capable, such as Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with fast Analog to Digital Converters (ADC). However, FPGA can provide fast implementation at relatively low cost and also enables the development of sophisticated digital pulse processing algorithms to improve energy, position and time resolutions in PET systems. Our group has developed and evaluated one energy calculation and three timing pick-off methods for implementation onto an FPGA-based system. For a typical PET detector setup, our charge integration method presents energy resolution similar to previously designed PET detectors. The best performance for timing pick-off was achieved by the Initial Rise Interpolation (IRI) method, where a coincidence time resolution of around 440 ps is suitable for Time of Flight (TOF) PET. Future works include embedding the proposed algorithms in a FPGAbased data acquisition system under development by our group which will be employed in a PET prototype.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25118

    MUCSI, C.S. ; REIS, L.A.M. dos; GOMES, M.P. ; PEREIRA, L.A.T. ; ROSSI, J.L. . Study on the viability of the recycling by electric arc melting of zirconium alloys scraps aiming the scalability of the process. Materials Science Forum, v. 930, p. 495-500, 2018. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.930.495

    Abstract: Turning chips of zirconium alloys are produced in large quantities during the machining of alloy rods for the fabrication of the end plugs for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel elements parts of Angra II nuclear reactor (Brazil – Rio de Janeiro). This paper presents a study on the search for an efficient way for the cleaning, quality control and Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) of pressed zirconium alloys chips to produce a material viable to be used in the production of the fuel rod end plugs. The process starts with cutting oil clean out. The first step in this process consists in soaking a bunch of chips in clean water, to remove soluble cutting oils, followed by an alkaline degreasing bath and a wash with a high-pressure flow of water. Drying is performed by a flux of warm air. The oil free chips are then subjected to a magnet in order to detect and collect any magnetic material, essentially ferrous, that may be present in the original chips. Samples of the material are collected and then melted in a small non consumable electrode vacuum arc furnace for evaluation by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) in order to define the quality of the chips. The next step consists in the 15 ton hydraulic pressing the chips in a die with 40 mm square section and 500 mm long, producing an electrode with 20% of the Zircaloy bulk density. The electrode was finally melted in a laboratory scale modified VAR furnace located at the CCTM–IPEN, producing 0.8 kg ingots. The authors conclude that the samples obtained from the fuel element industry can be melting in a VAR furnace, modified to accommodate low density electrodes, allowing a reduction up to 40 times the original storage volume, however, it is necessary to remelt the ingots to correct their composition in order to recycle the original zirconium alloys chips. in a process to reduce volume and allow the reutilization of valuable Zircaloy scraps.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25117

    MUCCILLO, R. ; ESPOSITO, V.; FLORIO, D.Z. de; MUCCILLO, E.N.S. . Electric field-assisted pressureless sintering gadolinium-, yttrium- and samarium-doped barium cerate. Scripta Materialia, v. 156, p. 6-9, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.07.005

    Abstract: Gadolinium-, yttrium- and samarium-doped barium cerate compounds were sintered either conventionally at 1500 °C or applying an electric field at 1200 °C. The combined results of dilatometry and impedance spectroscopy measurements in electric field-assisted sintered specimens show substantial improvement of the electrical conductivity. Improved grain-to-grain contact and the thermal removal of depleted chemical species due to Joule heating at the space charge region are proposed as the main mechanisms for the increase of both the grain boundary and the bulk electrical conductivities, respectively.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25116

    MOREIRA, TIANA C.L.; AMATO-LOURENCO, LUIS F.; SILVA, GISELA T. da; ANDRE, CARMEN D.S. de; ANDRE, PAULO A. de; BARROZO, LIGIA V.; SINGER, JULIO M.; SALDIVA, PAULO H.N.; SAIKI, MITIKO ; LOCOSSELLI, GIULIANO M.. The use of tree barks to monitor traffic related air pollution: a case study in São Paulo–Brazil. Frontiers in Environmental Science, v. 6, n. 72, p. 1-12, 2018. DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2018.00072

    Abstract: The analysis of chemical elements in the barks of trees is an alternative procedure to access spatial heterogeneity of traffic related air pollution. However, the role of tree species in the characterization of the variability of airborne pollution is poorly known. We present an observational study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, based on the analysis of 498 trees from three common species: Tipuana tipu, Poincianella pluviosa, and Ligustrum sp. We considered ANCOVA models to compare the concentrations of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ba, and S in the bark (periderm) of trees located close to streets with different levels of traffic intensity controlling for the extension of nearby green areas. The expected trend of increasing elemental concentration in the bark of trees located near streets with greater traffic intensity or close to smaller green areas was only fully evidenced by T. tipu. For instance, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Al, and Ba increase by 200, 350, 230, and 280% respectively, for trees of this species located near arterial streets when compared to those observed near local streets. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Al, and Ba are reduced by 41, 45, 50, and 30%, respectively, for trees located near green areas. For P. pluviosa, the capacity to suggest an association between the tree bark concentration of chemical elements with increasing levels of air pollution and presence of green areas was only fully observed for Zn and Cu. For Ligustrum sp., weaker and sometimes non-expected associations between bark concentrations of the chemical elements and either street classification or green area extension were observed. Our results indicate that the choice of species is a key element in the use of tree barks as a biomonitoring tool in urban landscapes. Species like T. tipu, with rough and highly porous bark, are the most appropriate for such purpose.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25115

    MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.; BRAVO-ARANDA, JUAN A.; BENAVENT-OLTRA, JOSE A.; ORTIZ-AMEZCUA, PABLO; ROMAN, ROBERTO; BEDOYA-VELASQUEZ, ANDRES E.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS. Study of the planetary boundary layer by microwave radiometer, elastic lidar and Doppler lidar estimations in Southern Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Research, v. 213, p. 185-195, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.06.007

    Abstract: The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is a relevant part of the atmosphere with a variable extension that clearly plays an important role in fields like air quality or weather forecasting. Passive and active remote sensing systems have been widely applied to analyze PBL characteristics. The combination of different remote sensing techniques allows obtaining a complete picture on the PBL dynamic. In this study, we analyze the PBL using microwave radiometer, elastic lidar and Doppler lidar data. We use co-located data simultaneously gathered in the framework of SLOPE-I (Sierra Nevada Lidar aerOsol Profiling Experiment) campaign at Granada (Spain) during a 90- day period in summer 2016. Firstly, the PBL height (PBLH) obtained from microwave radiometer data is validated against PBLH provided by analyzing co-located radiosondes, showing a good agreement. In a second stage, active remote sensing systems are used for deriving the PBLH. Thus, an extended Kalman filter method is applied to data obtained by the elastic lidar while the vertical wind speed variance method is applied to the Doppler lidar. PBLH′s derived by these approaches are compared to PBLH retrieved by the microwave radiometer. The results show a good agreement among these retrievals based on active remote sensing in most of the cases, although some discrepancies appear in instances of intense PBL changes (either growth and/or decrease).

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  • IPEN-DOC 25114

    MATOS, BRUNO R. ; POLITANO, RODOLFO ; REY, JOSE F.Q.; HERMIDA-MERINO, DANIEL; SCHADE, ULRICH; PUSKAR, LJILJANA; FONSECA, FABIO C. . Interplay of alpha/beta-relaxation dynamics and the shape of ionomer building blocks. Scientific Reports, v. 8, n. 13441, 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31368-8

    Abstract: The relation between the alpha/beta relaxations and the shape of the building blocks of ionomer materials is a key factor for programming an important temperature-dependent property: the memory of shape. However, the morphology of ionomers is indirectly obtained via modeling of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data owing to the hardly accessible image characterization of the nanometric building blocks-micelle-like cylindrical polymeric aggregates (radius similar to 2-6 nm and length >100 nm). Herein, broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) measurements, free from electrode polarization effects, allowed identifying the time and temperature dependence of the polarization of different length scales of the ionomer matrix, and more importantly, by directly providing the aspect ratio of the radius and length of the polymeric aggregates for each desired temperature. This finding is essential for controlling the shape of ionomer based functional products under several stimuli conditions, thereby advancing remarkable applications, such as four dimensional (4D) printing.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25113

    MARTINS, JOAO F.T. ; SANTOS, ROBINSON A. dos ; FERRAZ, CAUE de M. ; OLIVEIRA, RENE R. ; FIEDERLE, MICHAEL; AMADEU, RAFAEL de A. ; SANTOS, RODRIGO S. dos ; SILVA, THIAGO L.B. da; HAMADA, MARGARIDA M. . Optimization of the HgI2 Crystal preparation for application as a radiation semiconductor detector. Studies in Engineering and Technology, v. 5, n. 1, p. 76-88, 2018. DOI: 10.11114/set.v5i1.3149

    Abstract: The effect of HgI2 crystal encapsulation using different polymer resins, with the intent of avoiding the oxidation of the crystal surface, was evaluated in this work. The crystal was purified and grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) technique modified. Systematic measurements were carried out for evaluating the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal grown. The purer region of the crystal grown was selected to be prepared as a radiation detector, applying water-based conductive ink contacts and copper wire on the crystal surfaces. After that, the crystal was encapsulated with a polymeric resin which insulates atmospheric gases, aiming to improve the stability of the HgI2 detector. Four resins were used for crystal encapslation and the performance of the detector depended on the composition of the resins used. Among the four resins studied to evaluate the influence of encapsulation on the performance of crystals, as a radiation detector, the best result of resistivity and energy spectrum was obtained for the resin #3 (50% - 100% of Methylacetate and 5% - 10% of n-butylacetate). The encapsulation of crystals with polymer resins, performed with the intent of avoiding the oxidation of the crystal surface, did not compromise the measurements and were fully capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation. The stability of the encapsulated HgI2 crystal detector was of up to 78 hs, while the stability found for HgI2 detector no encapsulated was in order 3 ~4 hs.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25112

    MARIANO, DOUGLAS O.C.; MESSIAS, MARCELA Di G. ; PREZOTTO-NETO, JOSE P. ; SPENCER, PATRICK J. ; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.. Biochemical analyses of proteins from duttaphrynus melanostictus (Bufo melanostictus) skin secretion: soluble protein retrieval from a viscous matrix by ion-exchange batch sample preparation. Protein Journal, v. 37, n. 4, p. 380-389, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9780-z

    Abstract: A crucial step in scientific analysis can be sample preparation, and its importance increases in the same rate as the sensitivity of the following employed/desired analytical technique does. The need to analyze complex, viscous matrices is not new, and diverse approaches have been employed, with different success rates depending on the intended molecules. Solid-phase extraction, for example, has been successfully used in sample preparation for organic molecules and peptides. However, due to the usual methodological conditions, biologically active proteins are not successfully retrieved by this technique, resulting in a low rate of protein identification reported for the viscous amphibian skin secretion. Here we describe an ion-exchange batch processing sample preparation technique that allows viscous or adhesive materials (as some amphibian skin secretions) to be further processed by classical liquid chromatography approaches. According to our protocol, samples were allowed to equilibrate with a specific resin that was washed with appropriated buffers in order to yield the soluble protein fraction. In order to show the efficiency of our methodology, we have compared our results to classically prepared skin secretion, i.e., by means of filtration and centrifugation. After batch sample preparation, we were able to obtain reproductive resolved protein chromatographic profiles, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, and retrieve some biological activities, namely, hydrolases belonging to serine peptidase family. Not only that, but also the unbound fraction was rich in low molecular mass molecules, such as alkaloids and steroids, making this sample preparation technique also suitable for the enrichment of such molecules.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25110

    UCO, DAYANE P.; LEITE-SILVA, VANIA R.; SILVA, HERON D.T.; DUQUE, MARCELO D.; GRICE, JEFFREY; MATHOR, MONICA B. ; ANDREO-FILHO, NEWTON; LOPES, PATRICIA S.. UVA and UVB formulation phototoxicity in a three-dimensional human skin model: photodegradation effect. Toxicology in Vitro, v. 53, p. 37-44, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2018.07.009

    Abstract: In vitro three-dimensional human skin models are an innovative alternative to evaluate cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to use a skin model to evaluate the potential toxicity of sunscreen formulations with or without exposure to UV radiation. In addition, the toxicity of these formulations was evaluated after exposure to photodegradation. The results showed toxicity with all formulations/conditions tested, including the control formulation, compared to PBS. Cell viability of photodegraded formulations - prior to the phototoxicity radiation process - was higher, indicating that some formulation components were degraded into products with reduced toxicity. The results also indicated that avobenzone was more unstable/toxic than octyl p-methoxycinnamate under the same test conditions. The sunscreens and their formulations were shown to be toxic to skin model cells to some extent, even when not exposed to UV irradiation; however the biological role of this toxicity is unclear. This result shows the importance of testing sunscreen formulations in real in-use conditions. Finally, since we used an in vitro assay based on a human cell model, this non-invasive technique represents a suitable alternative to animal models for phototoxicity tests in general and could have application in screening new sunscreen products.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25109

    LEAL, GEORGIA B. ; CIOTTI, LIGIA; WATACABE, BEATRIZ N. ; SILVA, DANIELA C.L. da ; ANTONIASSI, RODOLFO M. ; SILVA, JULIO C.M. ; LINARDI, MARCELO ; GIUDICI, REINALDO; VAZ, JORGE M. ; SPINACE, ESTEVAM V. . Preparation of Au/TiO2 by a facile method at room temperature for the CO preferential oxidation reaction. Catalysis Communications, v. 116, p. 38-42, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.catcom.2018.07.021

    Abstract: A simple strategy was used to prepare Au/TiO2 catalyst at room temperature. Au nanoparticles were initially prepared in solution using HAuCl4.3H2O as Au precursor, sodium citrate as stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The preformed Au nanoparticles were further supported on TiO2 and the resulting solid material was characterized by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy and tested for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich stream (COPROX reaction). The obtained Au/TiO2 catalyst consisted of Au nanoparticles with an average size of ~ 4 nm and showed excellent catalytic performance in the 20-50 °C low-temperature range. In particular, at 40 °C a CO conversion of 99.5% and CO2 selectivity of 45% were obtained using an O2/CO ratio of 2 (1 vol% CO, λ=4) and 97 vol% H2 in the feed gas stream (GHSV=15,000 mL gcat −1 h−1).

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  • IPEN-DOC 25108

    LARROZA, ELIANE G. ; KECKHUT, PHILIPPE; BARAY, JEAN-LUC; NAKAEMA, WALTER M.; VEREMES, HELENE; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; DIONISI, DAVIDE; KHAYKIN, SERGEY; RAVETTA, FRANCOIS. Long-range transport of water channelized through the southern subtropical jet. Atmosphere, v. 9, n. 10, 2018. DOI: 10.3390/atmos9100374

    Abstract: In this study, an air mass (containing a cirrus cloud) was detected by light detection and ranging (lidar) above São Paulo (Brazil) in June 2007 and tracked around the globe, thanks to Lagrangian calculations as well as ground-based and satellite observations. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data were also used to provide locations of occurrence of cirrus around the globe and extract their respective macro physical parameters (altitude and temperature). An analysis of the air mass history based on Lagrangian trajectories reveals that water coming from the Equator is channelized through the southern subtropical jet for weeks. In this case, the back-trajectories showed that the cirrus cloud detected at São Paulo was a mixture of air masses from two different locations: (1) the active convective area located around the Equator, with transport into the upper troposphere that promotes cirrus cloud formation; and (2) the South Pacific Ocean, with transport that follows the subtropical jet stream (STJ). Air masses coming from equatorial convective regions are trapped by the jet, which contributes to maintaining the lifetime of the cirrus cloud for a few days. The cloud disappears near the African continent, due to a southern excursion and warmer temperatures, then reappears and is detected again by the lidar system in São Paulo after 12 days. The observed cloud is located at a similar altitude, revealing that sedimentation is small or compensated by radiative uplift.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25106

    KAFER, KARINE A.; BERNARDI, HEIDE H.; SANTOS, OSMAR de S.; OTUBO, LARISSA ; LIMA, NELSON B. de ; OTUBO, JORGE. The influence of microstructure and mechanical resistance on the shape memory of ECAE processed stainless Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-Co steel. Materials Research, v. 21, n. 5, 2018. DOI: 10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2017-0958

    Abstract: In the current work, XRD, SEM, EBSD and TEM techniques were used to evaluate the microstructure of stainless Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-Co shape memory steel processed by ECAE and annealed for one hour at temperatures ranging from 650ºC to 950ºC. The results were then correlated with the mechanical and shape-memory properties of the steel. It was observed that the samples containing large grains and a microstructure free of defects or precipitates presented a high volume fraction of multi-variant thermal martensite and stress-induced martensite, resulting in good shape recovery, owing to the memory effect. The grain refinement and precipitation of second-phase particles decreased the volume fraction and number of martensite variants and considerably increased the mechanical resistance, enhancing the elastic shape recovery. It was shown that shape memory properties were essentially related to the mechanical resistance of the matrix, which in turn was related to the microstructure.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25105

    SOUZA, SAMIRA H.J.; MACHADO, ALANA C.; LOPES, RAQUEL M.; ZEZELL, DENISE M. ; SCARAMUCCI, TAIS; ARANHA, ANA C.C.. Effectiveness and acid/tooth brushing resistance of in-office desensitizing treatments - a hydraulic conductance study. Archives of Oral Biology, v. 96, p. 130-136, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.09.004

    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate dentin permeability and tubule occlusion of in-office desensitizing treatments, and to analyze their resistance to erosive/abrasive challenges. Design: Ninety-one 1mm-thick dentin discs were immersed in EDTA solution for 5 min. After analyzing the maximum dentin permeability, the specimens were randomly allocated into 7 experimental groups (n=10): Control (no treatment); Er,Cr:YSGG laser; Nd:YAG laser; Gluma Desensitizer; Duraphat; Pro-Argin toothpaste; Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate (CSP) paste. The post-treatment permeability was assessed and then the specimens were subjected to a 5-day erosion-abrasion cycling protocol: 4x/day of immersion in citric acid solution (5 min;0.3%), followed by exposure to clarified human saliva (60 min). After the first and last acid challenges, specimens were brushed for 15 s, with exposure to the toothpaste slurry for total time of 2 min. Dentin permeability was re-measured (post-cycling). Percentage of dentin permeability for each experimental time was calculated in relation to the maximum permeability (%Lp). Data were analyzed with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Surface modifications were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: In both experimental time CSP paste and Gluma Desensitizer did not differ from each other (p=0.0874), and were the only groups that presented significantly lower %Lp than the Control (p=0.026 and p=0.022, respectively). After treatment, they were able to reduce dentin permeability in 82% and 72%, respectively. The %Lp post-cycling was higher than post-treatment value for all groups (p=0.008). Dentin permeability increased 21% for CSP paste and 12% for Gluma, but they remained significant different from Control. Deposits on the surface were observed for CSP paste; and for Gluma, tubule diameters were shown to be smaller. Conclusions: CSP paste and Gluma Desensitizer were the only treatments able to decrease dentin permeability post-treatment and to sustain low permeability post-cycling.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25104

    JIMENEZ-VILLAR, ERNESTO ; XAVIER, M.C.S.; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. ; MESTRE, VALDECI; MARTINS, WELITON S.; BASSO, GABRIEL F.; ERMAKOV, V.A.; MARQUES, F.C.; SA, GILBERTO F. de. Anomalous transport of light at the phase transition to localization: strong dependence with incident angle. Photonics Research, v. 6, n. 10, p. 929-942, 2018. DOI: 10.1364/PRJ.6.000929

    Abstract: There has been a growing interest in disordered optical media in recent years due to their potential applications in solar collectors, random lasers, light confinement, and other advanced photonic functions. This paper studies the transport of light for different incidence angles in a strongly disordered optical medium composed of core-shell TiO2@Silica nanoparticles suspended in an ethanol solution. A decrease of optical conductance and an increase of absorption near the input border are reported when the incidence angle increases. The specular reflection, measured for the photons that enter the sample, is lower than the effective internal reflection undergone by the coherently backscattered photons in the exact opposite direction, indicating a nonreciprocal propagation of light. This study represents a novel approach in order to understand the complex physics involved at the phase transition to localization.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25103

    ICHIKAWA, R.U. ; LINHARES, H.S.M.D.; PERAL, I.; BALDOCHI, S.L. ; RANIERI, I.M. ; TURRILLAS, X.; MARTINEZ, L.G. . Evidence for a core–shell configuration in Tb-doped KY3F10 nanoparticles using synchrotron x-ray line profile and pair distribution function analyses. Materials Research Express, v. 5, n. 1, 2018. DOI: 10.1088/2053-1591/aaa0bc

    Abstract: The microstructure of Tb-doped KY3F10 nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation was analysed using x-ray synchrotron diffraction data. Size-strain analysis was performed by means of x-ray line profile (XLPA) methods such as Warren–Averbach and whole powder pattern modelling. Additionally, the structural coherence of the sample was accessed using pair distribution function analysis, supporting the XLPA results. The combination of all methods revealed that the nanoparticles exhibit a more ordered core and a less ordered surface comprising a core–shell configuration.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25102

    HAZENFRATZ, R. ; MUNITA, C.S. ; NEVES, E.G.. Neural networks (SOM) applied to INAA data of chemical elements in archaeological ceramics from Central Amazon. Science & Technology of Archaeological Research, v. 3, n. 2, SI, p. 334-340, 2017. DOI: 10.1080/20548923.2018.1470218

    Abstract: Artificial neural networks represent an alternative to traditional multivariate techniques, such as principal component and discriminant analysis, which rely on hypotheses regarding the normal distribution of the data and homoscedasticity. They also may be a powerful tool for multivariate modeling of systems that do not present linear correlation between variables, as well as to visualize high-dimensional data in bi- or trivariate structures. One special kind of neural network of interest in archaeometric studies is the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). SOMs can be distinguished from other neural networks for preserving the topological features of the original multivariate space. in this study, the self-organizing maps were applied to concentration data of chemical elements measured in archaeological ceramics from Central Amazon using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The main objective was testing the chemical patterns previously identified using cluster and principal component analysis, forming groups of ceramics according the multivariate chemical composition. It was verified by statistical tests that the chemical elemental data was not normally distributed and did not present homogeneity of covariance matrices for different groups, as requested by principal component analysis and other multivariate techniques. The maps obtained were consistent with the patterns identified by cluster and principal component analysis, forming two chemical groups of pottery shards for each archaeological site tested. Finally, it was verified the potential of SOMs for testing if failures in underlying hypotheses of traditional multivariate techniques might be critically influencing the results and subsequent archaeological interpretation of archaeometric data.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25100

    GUEDES-SILVA, CECILIA C. ; RODAS, ANDREA C.D.; SILVA, ANTONIO C. ; RIBEIRO, CHRISTIANE; CARVALHO, FLAVIO M. de S.; HIGA, OLGA Z. ; FERREIRA, THIAGO dos S.. Microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro biological behavior of silicon nitride ceramics. Materials Research, v. 21, n. 6, 2018. DOI: 10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2018-0266

    Abstract: The bioinert surface of silicon nitride ceramics led us to investigate the additions of SiO2, CaO and Al2O3 in order to aid the liquid phase sintering and improve the mechanical properties and biological behavior of the final materials. The sintered materials reached ca. 97% of theoretical density and total α→β-Si3N4 transformation. The samples had relatively high values of fracture toughness while their elastic modulus values were lower than those of conventional silicon nitride ceramics. Apatite deposits were observed on the surfaces analyzed after SBF (simulated body fluid) immersions, suggesting their bioactivity. Osteoblasts proliferation and calcified matrix were also detected as response to cells/ materials contact. This combination of properties suggests that all studied compositions are promising for applications in biomedical devices. Moreover, compositions with alumina additions and higher silica content had better in vitro biological behavior, densification and mechanical properties, suggesting greater potential to be used in bone substitute devices.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25099

    GUALTEROS, JESUS A.D.; GARCIA, MARCO A.S.; SILVA, ANDERSON G.M. da; RODRIGUES, THENNER S. ; CANDIDO, EDUARDO G. ; SILVA, FELIPE A. e ; FONSECA, FABIO C. ; QUIROZ, JHON; OLIVEIRA, DANIELA C. de; TORRESI, SUSANA I.C. de; MOURA, CARLA V.R. de; CAMARGO, PEDRO H.C.; MOURA, EDMILSON M. de. Synthesis of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles on Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 for the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol under low metal loadings. Journal of Materials Science, v. 54, n. 1, p. 238-251, 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-018-2827-x

    Abstract: We reported the organic template-free synthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3 displaying uniform Au sizes and high dispersions over the supports. The Au-based catalysts were prepared by a deposition– precipitation method using urea as the precipitating agent. In the next step, the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol was investigated as model reaction using only 0.08–0.05 mol% of Au loadings and oxygen (O2) as the oxidant. Very high catalytic performances (TOF up to 443,624 h-1) could be achieved. Specifically, we investigated their catalytic activities, selectivity, and stabilities as well as the role of metal–support interactions over the performances. The conversion of the substrate was found to be associated with the nature of the employed support as the Au NPs presented similar sizes in all materials. A sub-stoichiometric amount of base was sufficient for the catalyst activation and the observation of the catalysts profile over the time enable insights on their recyclability performances. We believe this reported method represents a facile approach for the synthesis of uniform Au-supported catalysts displaying high performances.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25098

    GONSALVES, TAYARA C. ; SILVA, FRANKS M.; VIEIRA, LIGIA S.; CASINI, JULIO C.S.; FARIA, RUBENS N. de . Electrochemical characteristics and microstructures of activated carbon powder supercapacitors for energy storage. Materials Science Forum, v. 930, p. 597-602, 2018. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.930.597

    Abstract: In recent years, extensive investigations have focused on the study and improvement of supercapacitor electrode materials. The electric devices produced with these materials are used to store energy over time periods ranging from seconds to several days. The main factor that determines the energy storage period of a supercapacitor is its self-discharge rate, i.e., the gradual decrease in electric potential that occurs when the supercapacitor terminals are not connected to either a charging circuit or electric load. Self-discharge is attenuated at lower temperatures, resulting in an increased energy storage period. This paper addresses the temperature-dependence of self-discharge via a systematic study of supercapacitors with nominal capacitances of 1.0 and 10.0 F at DC potentials of 5.5 and 2.7 V, respectively. The specific capacitances, internal resistances, and self-discharge characteristics of commercial activated carbon electrode supercapacitors were investigated. Using cyclic voltammetry, the specific capacitances were determined to be 44.4 and 66.7 Fg−1 for distinct carbon electrode supercapacitors. The self-discharge characteristics were investigated at both room temperature and close to the freezing point. The internal resistances of the supercapacitors were calculated using the discharge curves at room temperature. The microstructures of the electrode materials were determined using scanning electron microscopy.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25097

    GONCALVES, KARINA de O.; VIEIRA, DANIEL P. ; COURROL, LILIA C.. Study of THP-1 macrophage viability after sonodynamic therapy using methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid gold nanoparticles. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, v. 44, n. 9, p. 2009-2017, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.05.012

    Abstract: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is emerging as new atherosclerosis treatment. The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the vehicle for a sensitizer delivery improves reactive oxygen species formation. In this study, methyl ester of aminolevulinic acid (MALA) gold nanoparticles (MALA:AuNPs) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by photoreduction and characterized by ultraviolet/visible optical absorption, zeta potential and electron microscopy. The reactive oxygen species generation induced by ultrasound irradiation of MALA:AuNPs solutions was studied by observing the decrease in the 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran emission band. The potential use of MALA:AuNPs as sensitizer for sonodynamic therapy was investigated on THP-1 macrophages. The cytotoxicity test was also described. The findings suggested that ultrasound combined with MALA:AuNPs provides impressive results in in vitro studies. Sonodynamic therapy with MALA:AuNPs through 2 minutes of ultrasound exposure (1 MHz and 1 W/cm2) culminated with total macrophage reduction. Thus, sonodynamic therapy combined with MALA:AuNPs has potential as a treatment for atherosclerosis.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25096

    GOMES, MAURILIO P. ; SANTOS, IGOR P. dos ; COUTO, CAMILA P. ; BETINI, EVANDRO G. ; REIS, LUIS A.M. dos ; MUCSI, CRISTIANO S. ; COLOSIO, MARCO A.; ROSSI, JESUALDO L. . Heat treatment of sintered valve seat inserts. Materials Research, v. 21, n. 5, 2018. DOI: 10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2018-0068

    Abstract: The characterization of sintered valve seat inserts (VSIs) after being subjected to different heat treatment operations has been carried out. The VSIs were obtained from three different alloys by mixing iron powder with AISI M3:2, AISI M2 high-speed steels, and AISI D2 tool steel. After sintering, the VSI were quenched in air followed by double tempering at seven different temperatures. The cooling rate during air quenching was measured by means of a thermocouple type k attached to a data acquisition system. The characterization of the mechanical and physical properties of the VSIs was achieved by measuring relative density, apparent hardness and crush radial strength. The resulting microstructures for the sintered parts were interpreted using the isothermal and continuous cooling transformation diagrams for similar alloys. The VSI obtained with AISI M3:2 and AISI M2 high-speed steels after air quenching and double tempering at 600 ºC showed the best results in terms of apparent hardness and crush radial strength.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25095

    GENARO, ISABELLA S. de; ALMEIDA, FRANCINE M. de; HIZUME-KUNZLER, DEBORAH C.; MORIYA, HENRIQUE T.; SILVA, RONALDO A.; CRUZ, JOAO C.G.; LOPES, RENAN B.; RIGHETTI, RENATO F.; VIEIRA, RODOLFO de P.; SAIKI, MITIKO ; MARTINS, MILTON A.; TIBERIO, IOLANDA de F.L.C.; ARANTES-COSTA, FERNANDA M.; SARAIVA-ROMANHOLO, BEATRIZ M.. Low dose of chlorine exposure exacerbates nasal and pulmonary allergic inflammation in mice. Scientific Reports, v. 8, n. 12636, 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30851-6

    Abstract: Work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) is defined as preexisting asthma that worsens with exposure to irritants [e.g., chlorine (Cl2) derivatives] in the workplace. The maximum allowable concentration in the workplace of Cl2 exposure is 3 mg/ m3 (described in OSHA). We investigated in an experimental asthma model in mice the effects of a single exposure to a sodium hypochlorite dose with this allowed chlorine concentration and a tenfold higher dose. Acute chlorine exposure at 3.3 mg/m3 in the OVA-sensitized group increased eosinophils in the peribronquial infiltrate, cytokine production, nasal mucus production and the number of iNOS positive cells in the distal lung compared to only sensitized mice. The exposure to a higher dose of 33.3 mg/m3 in the OVA-sensitized group resulted in an increase in respiratory system elastance, in the total and differential numbers of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 in the lungs, eosinophils in peribronquial infiltrate and mucus content in nasal compared to non-exposed and sensitized animals. In this asthma model, chorine exposures at an allowable dose, contributed to the potentiation of Th2 responses. The functional alterations were associated with increased iNOS and ROCK-2 activation in the distal lung.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25094

    FREIRE, LUCIANO O. ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de ; MONTERRAIN, DANIEL. A system status definition to improve behavior description in specifications based on constructal law. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, v. 8, n. 8, p. 315-337, 2018. DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.88024

    Abstract: System behavior description using states faces problems like state explosion, lack of clear definition of state, state identification and coordination between multiple agents. The goals of this work are to ease design activity, to reduce engineering efforts, and to mitigate project risks. The proposed way is to improve information flow during design by adding definitions and some protocols or rules for communicating a specification or design description. This work presented an objective definition of system status (way of interaction with the rest of the world) along other concepts. This work focused in definitions as mind entities and their importance to rationalize work and mitigate project risks during design. This article presented some simple examples to illustrate the advantages of each aspect of proposed definition of system status and discussed limits and exceptions for such definition. The key finding was the proposed definition which was the simplest while keeping completeness at a given product breakdown level. Such definition of status enforced formal segregation of needs and solutions, and eased the inclusion of behavior definition in specifications.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25093

    FERREIRA, JOAO C. ; CAVALLARI, ROGER V. ; BERGAMASCHI, VANDERLEI S. ; ANTONIASSI, RODOLFO M. ; TEIXEIRA-NETO, ANGELA A.; LINARDI, MARCELO ; SILVA, JULIO C.M.. Palladium nanoparticles supported on mesoporous biocarbon from coconut shell for ethanol electro‑oxidation in alkaline media. Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy, v. 7, n. 4, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s40243-018-0130-z

    Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles supported on carbon Vulcan XC72 (Pd/C) and biocarbon (Pd/BC) synthesized by sodium borohydride process were used as catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media. The biocarbon (BC) from coconut shell with mesoporous and high surface area (792 m2 g−1) was obtained by carbonization at 900 °C and the hydrothermal treatment in a microwave oven. The D-band and G-band intensity ratio (ID/IG) from Raman analysis showed high disorder of the biocarbon, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests higher percentage of oxygen groups on the surface of biocarbon than of Vulcan XC72. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was observed peaks in 2θ degree related to the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of palladium and the mean crystallite sizes calculated based on the diffraction peak of Pd (220) were 5.6 nm for Pd/C and 5.3 nm for Pd/BC. Using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), it was observed particles well dispersed on both carbons support materials. The electrocatalytic activity of the materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) experiments. The peak current density (on CV experiments) from ethanol electro-oxidation on Pd/BC was 50% higher than on Pd/C, while the current density measured at 15 min of CA experiments was 80% higher on Pd/BC than on Pd/C. The higher catalytic activity of Pd/BC might be related to the large surface area of the biocarbon (792 m2 g−1) vs (239 m2 g−1) of Vulcan carbon, the defects of the biocarbon structure and higher amount of oxygen on the surface than Carbon Vulcan XC 72.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25092

    FEITOSA, SABRINA A.; CAMPOS, FERNANDA; YOSHITO, WALTER K. ; LAZAR, DOLORES R.R. ; USSUI, VALTER ; VALANDRO, LUIZ F.; BOTTINO, MARCO A.; BOTTINO, MARCO C.. Effect of the bonding strategy on the tensile retention of full-contour zirconia crowns. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v. 85, p. 106-112, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2018.06.006

    Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of distinct bonding strategies on the retention of full-contour zirconia ceramic (YTZP, FCZ) crowns, and it characterized some physicochemical and mechanical properties of FCZ ceramic and its corresponding glazing system. To evaluate retention strength, dies were made with a dentin-analogue material to simulate a prepared tooth. FCZ crowns were manufactured using CAD-CAM technology and allocated into groups according to the bonding strategy: no ceramic treatment (PF – Panavia F cementation), glaze (GL), tribochemical silica coating (CJ), CJ + GL, and piranha solution followed by glaze (PS + GL). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling and storage in distilled water for 100 days before the retention tests. FCZ presented a porosity volume fraction of 0.2%, an apparent density of 6.06 g/cm3, Vickers hardness of 12.4±0.07 GPa, and fracture toughness of 5.54±0.24 MPam1/2. SEM revealed a homogeneous microstructure composed of submicron-sized grains. XRD identified mainly zirconia's tetragonal phase. Glaze powder morphology was observed to be irregular, with a nanometric particle size, and a diffraction pattern characteristic of an amorphous material with several peaks of leucite. The PF and GL groups had higher retention values. The majority of the groups presented pre-test bonding failures, and two catastrophic failures of the FCZ-crown (GL and PF groups) were noted. The use of an MDP-containing resin cement or glaze application might improve retention of the FCZ crowns.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25090

    FALCAO, R.B. ; DAMMANN, EDGAR D.C.C. ; ROCHA, C.J. ; DURAZZO, M. ; ICHIKAWA, R.U. ; MARTINEZ, L.G. ; BOTTA, W.J.; LEAL NETO, R.M. . An alternative route to produce easily activated nanocrystalline TiFe powder. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, v. 43, n. 33, p. 16107-16116, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.07.027

    Abstract: In this paper, an alternative process route to produce active nanocrystalline TiFe compound was investigated. First, TiH2 and Fe powders were dry co-milled in a planetary ball mill for 5e40 h. TiH2 was selected as precursor powder, instead of Ti powder, due its fragility, which has proved to be beneficial to decrease powders adherence on milling tools. In terms of loose powder mass, milling yields ranged from 90 to 95 wt.%. Next, milled powders were post-heated at 873 K under dynamic high-vacuum for TiFe synthesis reaction. First hydrogen absorption was verified in situ during the cooling process of samples (until the room temperature), being the amount of hydrogen absorbed and desorbed by this samples measured by automated Sievert's apparatus, under constant hydrogen flow rate of 9 cm3. min-1 (dynamic measurements). Besides to allowing the first absorption in situ, the investigated process route also allowed the production of the non-stoichiometric TiFe compound (rich in Ti) in samples milled for shorter times (5 and 10 h), both characteristics associated with maintaining the mechanical compound activity. Each sample absorbed hydrogen at 2 MPa during the cooling process, requiring no additional thermal activation cycles, since the samples milled for shorter times (mainly for 10 h) could absorb hydrogen for the first time more easily. However, the samples milled for longer times (25 and 40 h) shown better results in terms of reversible and storage capacities (0.73 and 0.94 wt.%, respectively).

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  • IPEN-DOC 25089

    ESTEVES-PEDRO, NATALIA M.; SUGIBAYASHI, KENJI; OSTROSKY, ELISSA A.; FERRARI, MARCIO; SUFI, BIANCA da S. ; MATHOR, MONICA B. ; MORENO, PAULO R.H.; LOURENCO, FELIPE R.; CONSIGLIERI, VLADI O.; BABY, ANDRE R.; KANEKO, TELMA M.. Validation cytotoxicity assay for lipophilic substances. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, v. 18, n. 4, p. 275-286, 2018. DOI: 10.2174/1568026618666180410142829

    Abstract: It is challenging to disperse lipophilic substances in a validated cytotoxicity assay, especially for compounds with log K-ow greater than or equal to 5 that may show false negative results. The purpose of this study was to explain the challenges in conducting a cytotoxicity validated test of lipophilic substances: Minthostachys setosa, Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus, and Drimysbrasiliensis essential oils. Additionally, we compared the equivalence of Neutral Red (NR) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl) -2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) in detecting cell viability. The Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) technique was used to evaluate the dispersion of essential oils and cytotoxicity in accordance to the guidelines of the OECD / GD 129 validated cytotoxicity assay. We compared the equivalence of vital dyes by TOST equivalence test. According to the results, we demonstrated the possibility of using other ways to disperse the lipophilic substances. Based on the HLB theory, we selected polysorbate 20 as the best solubilizing agent of the essential oils studied in D10 culture medium

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  • IPEN-DOC 25088

    DURAZZO, MICHELANGELO ; FREITAS, ARTUR C. ; SANSONE, ALBERTO E.S. ; FERREIRA, NILDEMAR A.M. ; CARVALHO, ELITA F.U. de ; RIELLA, HUMBERTO G. ; LEAL NETO, RICARDO M. . Sintering behavior of UO2-Er2O3 mixed fuel. Journal of Nuclear Materials, v. 510, p. 603-612, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.051

    Abstract: The incorporation of burnable neutron absorbers into nuclear fuel pellets is important regarding reactivity compensation, which enables longer fuel cycles. The dry mechanical blending route is the most attractive process to accomplish absorbers incorporation because of its simplicity. By using this route, the present work has investigated the sintering behavior of UO2Er2O3 mixed fuel. A comparison with UO2Gd2O3 sintering behavior was presented. The behavior of UO2Er2O3 fuel sintering was similar to that reported for UO2Gd2O3 fuel, e.g. two-stage sintering with two peaks in the shrinkage rate curves. The effect showed to be less pronounced for Er2O3. This was attributed to the characteristics of the Er2O3 powder particles used as raw-material, whose agglomerates can be more easily broken and thus better homogenized during the blending with UO2 powder. These results confirmed that sinterability depends directly on the quality of the homogenization of the powders, as seen previously. A second phase was experimentally detected in the UO2Er2O3 system, but its impact on the sintering behavior of this mixed fuel has not yet been clarified.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25087

    DONATUS, UYIME ; VIVEIROS, BARBARA V.G. de ; ALENCAR, MAICON C. de ; FERREIRA, RAPHAEL O.; MILAGRE, MARIANA X. ; COSTA, ISOLDA . Correlation between corrosion resistance, anodic hydrogen evolution and microhardness in friction stir weldment of AA2198 alloy. Materials Characterization, v. 144, p. 99-112, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2018.07.004

    Abstract: Correlation between corrosion resistance, anodic hydrogen evolution and microhardness in the friction stir weldment of AA2198-T851 alloy has been investigated. Different microscopy techniques, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed in the investigation. Unlike other 3rd generation Al-Cu-Li alloys where the regions that are most susceptible to corrosion are always within the weld region, the results reveal that the parent material is the most susceptible in this case. There is a direct correlation between corrosion resistance, anodic hydrogen evolution and microhardness in the weldment, and the T1 phase is associated with the direct correlation.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25086

    AGUILA, A. del; SORRIBAS, M.; LYAMANI, H.; TITOS, G.; OLMO, F.J.; ARRUDA-MOREIRA, G.; YELA, M.; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, L.. Sources and physicochemical characteristics of submicron aerosols during three intensive campaigns in Granada (Spain). Atmospheric Research, v. 213, p. 398-410, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.06.004

    Abstract: Aerosol particles in the submicron range and their physicochemical characteristics were investigated for the first time in Granada, southeastern Iberian Peninsula, during three intensive campaigns. The physical and chemical characteristics were analysed during two spring campaigns and one autumn campaign. New particle formation (NPF) events were found to be more frequent in spring than in autumn. The mean duration, growth rates and maximum diameters had ranges of 5.3–13.2 h, 2.4–4.0 nm h−1 and 35–47 nm, respectively. In addition, one shrinkage event occurred and had a duration of 2.2 h and a shrinkage rate of −2.5 nm h−1. During a period of atmospheric stagnation conditions under the influence of mountain breezes, three consecutive NPF events occurred. The high frequency of the NPF events was attributed to higher temperature and radiation levels and lower relative humidity than during a previous day with similar stagnant conditions but no nucleation occurrence. According to correlation analysis, mineral components correlated with particle number in the Aitken mode, while metals and secondary inorganic aerosols correlated with particle number in the finer and larger fractions, respectively. Pollutants such as CO, NO2, NO and black carbon showed moderate and high correlations with particle number in the submicron fraction. To assess the impact of the particle number contribution according to sources, a new approach was introduced using black carbon concentrations, resulting in four major contributors: urban background, traffic, NPF and biomass burning. The proposed approach was validated by means of different models based on the aerosol spectral dependencies and chemical compositions that classify aerosol populations. Both the models and the proposed approach identified biomass burning and fossil fuel particles during the same periods, and the results showed good agreement. The proposed approach can guide future studies attempting to account for submicron particle contributions in other urban environments.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25084

    DARRIBA, GERMAN N.; MUNOZ, EMILIANO L.; CARBONARI, ARTUR W. ; RENTERIA, MARIO. Experimental TDPAC and theoretical DFT study of structural, electronic, and hyperfine properties in (111In → )111Cd-doped SnO2 semiconductor: Ab initio modeling of the electron-capture-decay after-effects phenomenon. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, v. 122, n. 30, p. 17423-17436, 2018. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b03724

    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the effect of Cd doping at ultralow concentrations in SnO2 both experimentally, by measuring the temperature dependence of the electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions with time-differential γ–γ perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy using 111Cd as probe nuclei, and theoretically, by performing first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. TDPAC spectra were successfully analyzed with a time-dependent on–off model for the perturbation factor. These results show combined dynamic plus static interactions whose electric-field-gradients were associated in this model to different stable electronic configurations close to the Cd atoms. The dynamic regime is then originated in fast fluctuations between these different electronic configurations. First-principles calculation results show that the Cd impurity introduces a double acceptor level in the top of the valence band of the doped semiconductor and produces isotropic outward relaxations of the nearest oxygen neighbors. The variation of the calculated electric-field gradient tensor as a function of the charge state of the Cd impurity level shows an interesting behavior that explains the experimental results, giving strong support from first-principles to the electron-capture after-effects proposed scenario. The electron-capture decay of the parent 111In to 111Cd as well as the double acceptor character of the 111Cd impurity and the electric nature of the host are shown to contribute to the existence of these types of time-dependent hyperfine interactions.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25083

    COUTO, C.P. ; POLITANO, R. ; GOMES, M.P. ; COLOSIO, M.A.; ROSSI, J.L. . Diffusion analyses using GDOES technique of the 22MnB5 press hardened steel with Al-Si and Zn-Ni coatings. Materials Science Forum, v. 930, p. 472-477, 2018. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.930.472

    Abstract: The hot stamping process consists to heat the steel blank, at total austenitization temperatures and to transfer it into the press tooling for forming and fast cooling to fully martensitic transformation. This transference from furnace to press stage promotes some steel oxidation. The application of metallic coatings avoids this phenomenon. The Al-Si coating, a patented process, has been the most applied on steel. Hence, alternative coatings like Zn-Ni are under development. It is known that this furnace heating causes chemical elements diffusion that results in intermetallics formation. This study had the objective of analyze the diffusion profiles of chemical elements present in the substrate, 22MnB5 steel, and coatings of Al-Si and Zn-Ni, using glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy - GDOES and to correlate the results with those obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy - EDS. The results showed that for the Zn-Ni sample, the Zn and Fe profiles at the interfacial zone, are predominant; which justify the high proportion of ZnFe phases as showed using scanning electron microscopy - SEM images. For the Al-Si sample at the interfacial zone, the profile of Al and Fe varies simultaneously; besides that, silicon diffusion in the substrate is more effectively than the nickel diffusion. For this reason, it was possible to identify AlFeSi phase near to the steel substrate.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25082

    COSTA, ANDREA da; ZORGI, NAHIARA E.; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do ; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de. Gamma irradiation of Toxoplasma gondii protein extract improve immune response and protection in mice models. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, v. 106, p. 599-604, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.155

    Abstract: Gamma radiation induces protein changes that enhance immunogenicity for venoms, used in antivenin production. Coccidian parasites exposed to gamma radiation elicit immune response with protection in mice and man, but without studies on the effect of gamma radiation in soluble acellular extracts or isolated proteins. Toxoplasmosis is a highly prevalent coccidian disease with only one vaccine for veterinary use but with remaining tissue cysts. Total parasite extracts or recombinant proteins used as immunogen induce usually low protection. Here, we study gamma radiation effect on T. gondii extracts proteins (STAG) and its induced immunity in experimental mice models. By SDS-PAGE, protein degradation is seen at high radiation doses, but at ideal dose (1500 Gy), there are preservation of the antigenicity and immunogenicity, detected by specific antibody recognition or production after mice immunization. Immunization with STAG irradiated at 1500 Gy induced significant protection in mice immunized and challenged with distinct T. gondii strains. In their blood, higher levels of specific CD19+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ activated cells were found when compared to mice immunized with STAG. Irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites extracts induce immune response and protection in mice in addition, could be a feasible alternative for Toxoplasma vaccine.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25081

    CORDEIRO, GUILHERME L.; CAMARGO, ELAINE F. de; SANTOS, MONIQUE C.L. ; PEREIRA, CONRADO V.; USSUI, VALTER; LIMA, NELSON B. de; NETO, ALMIR O. ; LAZAR, DOLORES R.R.. Improved Pt/CeO2 electrocatalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, v. 13, n. 7, p. 6388-6401, 2018. DOI: 10.20964/2018.07.58

    Abstract: A simple and low-cost approach for the preparation of wide-gap (Eg = 3.43 eV), fine cerium dioxide crystals (CeO2, d = 8.1 nm), was developed in order to support Pt nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation. Cerium oxide powders were prepared by precipitation from cerium chloride solution in ammonia medium and the influence of calcination temperature was evaluated. Platinum nanoparticles were incorporated by a wet chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid with sodium borohydrate. Compared to a state-of-the-art Pt/C, the nanocomposite exhibited a much higher mass activity (2.5×) and significant anti-poisoning ability. The promotional effect of the CeO2 nanocrystals was discovered to be affected by heat treatment conditions. Compared to oven-dried samples, calcination allows to (i) an enhanced metal–support interaction between CeO2 and Pt and (ii) an enhancement of electron transportation to catalyst owing to the shrinkage of CeO2 bandgap, thereby promoting the oxidation of the strongly adsorbed CxHy. Therefore, the Pt/CeO2 nanocomposite appears to be a promising electrocatalyst for advanced energy conversion.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25080

    CONTURBIA, G.L.C.R.; DURAZZO, M. ; CARVALHO, E.F.U. de ; RIELLA, H.G. . Phase quantification in UAlx-Al dispersion targets for Mo-99 production. Journal of Nuclear Materials, v. 509, p. 465-477, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.07.029

    Abstract: Uranium aluminide (UAlx) is a mixture of three distinct intermetallic compounds comprised of UAl2, UAl3 and UAl4, where the “x” is used to denote a mixture of those phases. Usually UAlx is formed during the target fabrication process by means of a solid state reaction between the uranium aluminide and aluminum. Quantitative techniques such as image analysis and X-ray diffraction using the Rietveld method were compared for their applicability in the determination of the UAl2, UAl3 and UAl4 concentrations, both in the UAl2 primary ingot and in the UAlx-Al dispersion. The UAlx composition was quantified in all stages of the target manufacturing. The image analysis method was shown to be useful for UAlx phase quantification in the primary UAl2 ingot, but was not applicable in the case of UAlx-Al dispersions. The X-ray diffraction method allowed the quantification of the existing UAlx phases in both the primary ingot and UAlx-Al dispersions. Possible sources of error are discussed. The method of quantification based on X-ray diffraction was shown to be appropriate to monitor the evolution of UAlx phases during the manufacturing process.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25079

    CHURA-CHAMBI, ROSA M. ; FRAGA, TATIANA R.; SILVA, LUDMILA B. da; YAMAMOTO, BRUNO B.; ISAAC, LOURDES; BARBOSA, ANGELA S.; MORGANTI, LIGIA . Leptospira interrogans thermolysin refolded at high pressure and alkaline pH displays proteolytic activity against complement C3. Biotechnology Reports, v. 19, n. e00266, p. 1-7, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00266

    Abstract: Enzymes from the thermolysin family are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by bacteria and are potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Thermolysin encoded by the gene LIC13322 of the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospira interrogans, was shown to cleave proteins from the Complement System. However, the production of this recombinant protein using traditional refolding processes with high levels of denaturing reagents for thermolysin inclusion bodies (TL-IBs) solubilization results in poor recovery and low proteolytic activity probably due to improper refolding of the protein. Based on the assumption that leptospiral proteases play a crucial role during infection, the aim of this work was to obtain a functional recombinant thermolysin for future studies on the role of these metalloproteases on leptospiral infection. The association of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and alkaline pH was utilized for thermolysin refolding. Incubation of a suspension of TL-IBs at HHP and a pH of 11.0 is non-denaturing but effective for thermolysin solubilization. Soluble protein does not reaggregate by dialysis to pH 8.0. A volumetric yield of 46 mg thermolysin/L of bacterial culture and a yield of near 100% in relation to the total thermolysin present in TL-IBs were obtained. SEC-purified thermolysin suffers fragmentation, likely due to autoproteolysis and presents proteolytic activity against complement C3 α-chain, possibly by a generation of a C3b-like molecule. The proteolytic activity of thermolysin against C3 was time and dose-dependent. The experience gained in this study shall help to establish efficient HHP-based processes for refolding of bioactive proteins from IBs.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25078

    CASTRO, M.C. ; SILVA, N.F. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Testing an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v. 975, p. 1-4, 2018. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/975/1/012066

    Abstract: The computed tomography (CT) is responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. Therefore, the radiation doses in this procedure must be accurate. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam yet. In order to search for a CT primary standard, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was tested in this work. The results showed to be within the international recommended limits.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25077

    CASTRO, LILIANA ; MOREIRA, EDSON G. ; VASCONCELLOS, MARINA B.A. ; LANGE, CAMILA N. ; PEDRON, TATIANA; BATISTA, BRUNO L.. Stability assessment of a bovine kidney reference-material candidate. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v. 317, n. 2, p. 1133-1139, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-018-5928-8

    Abstract: Reference materials are used worldwide and necessary for quality control purposes during analytical determinations. The present study describes the stability evaluation of a bovine kidney reference-material candidate. An isochronous layout was performed, in which the flasks involved are exposed at different temperatures for different time periods and then are analyzed at the same time at the end of the study. The mass fractions of ten inorganic constituents were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis, univariate and multivariate, showed no significant differences in composition between units exposed to the different temperatures and times. The reference material may be transported under normal transportation conditions and the certified values and uncertainties will continue to be valid for a period of 2 years.

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  • IPEN-DOC 25076

    CASTRO, MARCOS R. de ; MONTEIRO, WALDEMAR A. ; POLITANO, RODOLFO . Enhancements on strength of body structure due to bake hardening effect on hot stamping steel. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, p. 1-12, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-018-2542-4

    Abstract: Body structure projects are designed to develop lightweight structures, which result in low fuel consumption and emissions for internal combustion engines and longer battery life in the case of electric vehicles. The structures need to be lightweight but also strong in order to provide maximum safety to the occupants. These premises have led to the development of special materials such as the hot stamping steels. The most used steel in this process, quenched 22MnB5, also exhibits the bake hardening effect: its yield stress increases after being exposed at temperatures close to 200 °C (typical heat treatment of paint lines in the automotive industry). The aim of this study was to verify the improvement in the mechanical strength of a body structure due to the bake hardening effect to which the hot-stamped steel componentswere submitted. Samples of annealed 22MnB5 steel were submitted to tensile and chemical analysis. A second group of the same steel was subjected to an additional heat treatment in a laboratory furnace simulating the heating that occurs in the body paint line. Subsequently, the same tests were performed with the samples from the first group. Tensile tests evidenced the increase of 6.5% in the yield stress of the samples that suffered the bake hardening effect. The stress-strain diagram curves were used as the input to the side crash simulation program. The simulations demonstrated that the body structure whose hot-stamped parts were subjected the bake hardening effect had a 2% reduction in side crash intrusion compared to body structure where the parts did not suffer this effect. In the case of the lateral protection bar test, the bake hardening effect provided a 5% increase in the maximum bending load.

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A pesquisa no RD utiliza os recursos de busca da maioria das bases de dados. No entanto algumas dicas podem auxiliar para obter um resultado mais pertinente.

É possível efetuar a busca de um autor ou um termo em todo o RD, por meio do Buscar no Repositório , isto é, o termo solicitado será localizado em qualquer campo do RD. No entanto esse tipo de pesquisa não é recomendada a não ser que se deseje um resultado amplo e generalizado.

A pesquisa apresentará melhor resultado selecionando um dos filtros disponíveis em Navegar

Os filtros disponíveis em Navegar tais como: Coleções, Ano de publicação, Títulos, Assuntos, Autores, Revista, Tipo de publicação são autoexplicativos. O filtro, Autores IPEN apresenta uma relação com os autores vinculados ao IPEN; o ID Autor IPEN diz respeito ao número único de identificação de cada autor constante no RD e sob o qual estão agrupados todos os seus trabalhos independente das variáveis do seu nome; Tipo de acesso diz respeito à acessibilidade do documento, isto é , sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, ID RT apresenta a relação dos relatórios técnicos, restritos para consulta das comunidades indicadas.

A opção Busca avançada utiliza os conectores da lógica boleana, é o melhor recurso para combinar chaves de busca e obter documentos relevantes à sua pesquisa, utilize os filtros apresentados na caixa de seleção para refinar o resultado de busca. Pode-se adicionar vários filtros a uma mesma busca.

Exemplo:

Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

Autor: Maprelian

Título: loss of coolant

Tipo de publicação: Texto completo de evento

Ano de publicação: 2015

Para indexação dos documentos é utilizado o Thesaurus do INIS, especializado na área nuclear e utilizado em todos os países membros da International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA , por esse motivo, utilize os termos de busca de assunto em inglês; isto não exclui a busca livre por palavras, apenas o resultado pode não ser tão relevante ou pertinente.

95% do RD apresenta o texto completo do documento com livre acesso, para aqueles que apresentam o significa que e o documento está sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, solicita-se nesses casos contatar a Biblioteca do IPEN, bibl@ipen.br .

Ao efetuar a busca por um autor o RD apresentará uma relação de todos os trabalhos depositados no RD. No lado direito da tela são apresentados os coautores com o número de trabalhos produzidos em conjunto bem como os assuntos abordados e os respectivos anos de publicação agrupados.

O RD disponibiliza um quadro estatístico de produtividade, onde é possível visualizar o número dos trabalhos agrupados por tipo de coleção, a medida que estão sendo depositados no RD.

Na página inicial nas referências são sinalizados todos os autores IPEN, ao clicar nesse símbolo será aberta uma nova página correspondente à aquele autor – trata-se da página do pesquisador.

Na página do pesquisador, é possível verificar, as variações do nome, a relação de todos os trabalhos com texto completo bem como um quadro resumo numérico; há links para o Currículo Lattes e o Google Acadêmico ( quando esse for informado).

ATENÇÃO!

ESTE TEXTO "AJUDA" ESTÁ SUJEITO A ATUALIZAÇÕES CONSTANTES, A MEDIDA QUE NOVAS FUNCIONALIDADES E RECURSOS DE BUSCA FOREM SENDO DESENVOLVIDOS PELAS EQUIPES DA BIBLIOTECA E DA INFORMÁTICA.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

1. Portaria IPEN-CNEN/SP nº 387, que estabeleceu os princípios que nortearam a criação do RDI, clique aqui.


2. A experiência do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) na criação de um Repositório Digital Institucional – RDI, clique aqui.