Navegação IPEN por ano de publicação "2020"

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  • IPEN-DOC 23928

    FERREIRA, MERILYN S. ; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. . Yb:KGW self-Raman laser with 89 cm(−1) Stokes shift and more than 32% diode-to-Stokes optical efficiency. Optics and Laser Technology, v. 121, p. 1-4, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105835

    Abstract: We report on a Yb3+:KGW self-Raman laser operating at 1096 nm. A 100 μm fiber-coupled diode end-pumped configuration is used to generate a fundamental emission wavelength that strongly depends on internal resonator losses. Stokes emission at 1096 nm is achieved with a slope efficiency of 42 ± 8%, an optical conversion efficiency of more than 32% and a maximum output power of 4.5W for quasi-continuous operation (1 ms pulses). The explored Stokes conversion of 89 cm−1 shows excellent laser characteristics, indicating that this still little explored Stokes shift could pave the way to continuous-wave Raman frequency-comb lasers.

    Palavras-Chave: lasers; raman effect; doped materials; solid state lasers; raman spectra; stokes parameters; wavelengths; crystals

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  • IPEN-DOC 27119

    SILVA JÚNIOR, IREMAR A. da ; SIQUEIRA, PAULO de T.D. ; NASCIMENTO, EDUARDO do; YORIYAZ, HELIO ; SORDI, GIAN-MARIA A.A. ; POTIENS, MARIA da P.A. . Variability: surface intensity distribution of large-area reference sources. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 160, p. 1-7, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2020.109108

    Abstract: In this paper we present the impact of variability, a surface source parameter, on the efficiency evaluation of surface contamination monitors. This study was based on two source uniformity correction methodologies and data from real surface source distributions. Surface source intensity distribution has been changed by rearranging the cells (portions of the active area of each LARS) while keeping the same source uniformity value. Instrument efficiencies have been calculated for different sets of uniformities and variabilities. This study led to emphasize the importance of variability, a differential source intensity distribution parameter, over the uniformity, an integral source intensity distribution parameter, and reinforced the importance of the source uniformity correction procedure on the course of surface contamination monitor calibration.

    Palavras-Chave: surface contamination; surface contamination monitors; variations; calculation methods; variational methods; radiation sources; calibration; monte carlo method

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  • IPEN-DOC 26887

    PRADO, E.S.P. ; MIRANDA, F.S.; PETRACONI, G.; POTIENS JUNIOR, A.J. . Use of plasma reactor to viabilise the volumetric reduction of radioactive wastes. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 168, p. 1-4, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108625

    Abstract: Nuclear reactors, hospitals, industries and research institutes generate considerable amounts of radioactive waste every day. To dispose this waste in a safe and costeffective manner, it must be treated by immobilising the radionuclides and, for better stocking capacity, it must be volumetrically reduced as much as possible. To this end, plasma technology, among other promising technologies for radioactive waste treatment, exposes radioactive waste to temperatures above 1400 °C, thereby substantially reducing its volume. In the planning and managing of radioactive waste, the challenges related to plasma technology are presented as a motivation factor for the possible implantation of plasma reactors in nuclear plants and research centres, thereby improving radioactive waste management. In this study, a thermal plasma treatment process was established, and a plasma reactor was used for compactable waste processing. After 30 min of thermal plasma treatment, the volume reduction factor reached 1:99. The results demonstrate the viability of using a thermal plasma process for the volumetric reduction of radioactive waste in a safe and cost-effective manner.

    Palavras-Chave: radioactive materials; radioactive wastes; radioactive waste management; plasma; reactors; radioactive waste storage; reduction; slags; volume; brazilian cnen; plasma technology

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  • IPEN-DOC 25565

    SERRA, PEDRO L.S.; MASOTTI, PAULO H.F. ; ROCHA, MARCELO S. ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de ; TORRES, WALMIR M. ; MESQUITA, ROBERTO N. de . Two-phase flow void fraction estimation based on bubble image segmentation using Randomized Hough Transform with Neural Network (RHTN). Progress in Nuclear Energy, v. 118, p. 1-21, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnucene.2019.103133

    Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been encouraging the use of passive cooling systems in new designs of nuclear power plants. Next nuclear reactor generations are intended to have simpler and robust safety resources. Natural Circulation based systems hold an undoubtedly prominent position among these. The study of limiting conditions of these systems has led to instability behavior analysis where many different two-phase flow patterns are present. Void fraction is a key parameter in thermal transfer analysis of these flow instability conditions. This work presents a new method to estimate void fraction from images captured of an experimental two-phase flow circuit. The method integrates a set of Artificial Neural Networks with a modified Randomized Hough Transform to make multiple scans over acquired images, using crescent-sized masks. This method was called Randomized Hough Transform with Neural Network (RHTN). Each different mask size is chosen according with bubble sizes, which are the main ‘objects of interest’ in this image analysis. Images are segmented using fuzzy inference with different parameters adjusted based on acquisition focus. Void fraction calculation considers the volume of the imaged geometrical section of flow inside cylindrical glass tubes considering the acquisition depth-of-field used. The bubble volume is estimated based on geometrical parameters inferred for each detected bubble. The image database is obtained from experiments performed on a vertical two-phase flow circuit made of cylindrical glass where flow-patterns visualization is possible. The results have shown that the estimation method had good agreement with increasing void fraction experimental values. RHTN has been very efficient as bubble detector with very low ‘false-positive’ cases (< 0.004%) due robustness obtained through integration between Artificial Neural Networks with Randomized Hough Transforms.

    Palavras-Chave: two-phase flow; void fraction; neural networks; image processing; bubbles; fuzzy logic; transformations; nuclear power plants; pattern recognition; natural convection; randomness

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  • IPEN-DOC 26717

    MORAES, LETICIA P.R. ; MEI, JUN; FONSECA, FABIO C. ; SUN, ZIQI. Two-dimensional metal oxide nanomaterials for sustainable energy applications. In: ZAFEIRATOS, SPYRIDON (Ed.). 2D Nanomaterials for Energy Applications. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2020. p. 39-72, cap. 2. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-816723-6.00002-2

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  • IPEN-DOC 27122

    DAFRÉ-MARTINELLI, MARCELLE; FIGUEIREDO, ANA M.G. ; DOMINGOS, MARISA. Trace element leaf accumulation in native trees from the remaining Semideciduous Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Atmospheric Pollution Research, v. 11, n. 5, p. 871-879, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.apr.2020.01.015

    Abstract: Remnants of Semideciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by numerous industries, intense road traffic and agricultural lands in Southeast Brazil have been affected by trace elements. We implemented a passive biomonitoring with the three most abundant native tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus and Piptadenia gonoacantha) to answer these questions: 1) which species has the greatest potential to accumulate trace elements?; 2) does the leaf accumulation level of trace elements vary between the edge and interior of the forest remnants, between dry and wet periods or due to the distance from the industrial area?; 3) which species, among the most abundant in the forest remnants, would better indicate the spatial variations in trace elements pollution and which elements would be the most relevant for such spatial discrimination? Leaf samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons, at the edge and interior of four forest remnants. Trace elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Few edge effects were evidenced in the leaf concentrations in all species. Higher concentrations of most trace elements were measured during dry season. Although C. floribundus showed the most accumulating capacity, A. graveolens was the most appropriate species to discriminate spatial variations. The forest closer to the industrial area was distinguished from the others by Mn and Ni from oil burning, but the metal pollution from the industrial area did not interfere on the leaf concentrations in A. graveolens sampled in the urban and rural forests.

    Palavras-Chave: air pollution; particulates; deposition; air pollution monitoring; biological indicators; trace amounts; elements; forests; brazil; trees; monitoring; leaves; environment; mass spectroscopy; plasma

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  • IPEN-DOC 26886

    GARCIA, VANESSA S.G. ; ROSA, JORGE M.; BORRELY, SUELI I. . Toxicity and color reduction of a textile effluent containing reactive red 239 dye by electron beam irradiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 172, p. 1-5, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2020.108765

    Abstract: Textile effluents are a mixture of dyestuff, surfactants, dispersants, acids, alkalis and bleaching agents, among other compounds, and some of these are highly soluble and relatively recalcitrant. Suitable improvement of textile effluents may require combined treatment processes, such as Conventional Treatments and Advanced Oxidative Process (AOPs). Electron beam irradiation (EBI) has been proposed as a possible technology for the treatment of textile effluents. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of an Electron Beam treatment applied to toxicity and color reduction of a textile effluent containing reactive Red 239 dye. Effluent COD and TOC were also evaluated. The assessed effluents were submitted to EBI treatment at doses ranging from 0.5 to 15 kGy. Vibrio fischeri bacteria and Daphnia similis crustaceans were exposed to both irradiated and non-irradiated effluents, the toxicity was evaluated through EC50 (median effective concentration) calculations. EB irradiation successfully reduced effluent toxicity and color. The EC50 for D. similis(48h) were of 6.31% ± 3.19 (non-irradiated) and 27.56% ± 9.31 (10 kGy), and for V. fischeri(15min), of 7.41% ± 1.52 (nonirradiated) and 31.89% ± 10.99 (10 kGy), respectively. Approximately 70% toxicity reduction was obtained for both organisms, while 95% color reduction was obtained by applying 5 kGy.

    Palavras-Chave: toxicity; textiles; effluents; dyes; color; electron beams; textile industry; bacteria; crustaceans; experimental data; environmental impacts; toxic materials; decomposition

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  • IPEN-DOC 26520

    GONZALES-LORENZO, CARLOS D.; GUNDU RAO, T.K.; CANO, NILO F.; CARRERA, BETZABEL N.S. ; ROCCAB, RENE R.; CUEVAS-ARIZACA, EDY E.; AYALA-ARENAS, JORGE S.; WATANABE, SHIGUEO . Thermoluminescence and defect centers in β-CaSiO3 polycrystal. Journal of Luminescence, v. 217, p. 1-7, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2019.116783

    Abstract: β: CaSiO3 polycrystal was synthesized by the devitrification method. The polycrystal exhibits three thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 124 ºC, 250 ºC and 306 ºC. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the defect centers induced in the polycrystal by gamma irradiation and to identify the centers responsible for the TL process. Three defect centers contribute to the observed spectrum at room temperature. Center I with principal g-values 2.0135, 2.0094 and 2.0038 is attributed to O ion and the center appears to be the recombination center for 124 ºC, 147 ºC and 306 C TL peaks. Center II exhibiting an isotropic g-value of 2.00025 is identified as an Fþ-center (singly ionized oxygen vacancy). Fþ-center is also observed to be a recombination center for several TL peaks. Center III is assigned to a Ti3þcenter displaying an orthorhombic g- tensor with principal values g1 ¼1.9830, g2 ¼1.9741 and g3 ¼1.9046. This center is associated with 124 ºC and 147 ºC TL peaks. TL emission spectrum of β-CaSiO3 shows two emission bands at 370 and 520 nm.

    Palavras-Chave: polycrystals; calcium oxides; calcium silicates; silicon oxides; crystal defects; thermoluminescence; epr spectrometers; electron spin resonance

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  • IPEN-DOC 26441

    CARDOSO JUNIOR, MARCIO; CHEMALE JUNIOR, FARID; OLIVEIRA, CHRISTIE H.E. de; CRUZ, CARLOS E. de S.; ABREU, CARLOS J. de; GENEZINI, FREDERICO A. . Thermal history of potential gas reservoir rocks in the eastern Parnaíba Basin, Brazil. AAPG Bulletin, v. 104, n. 2, p. 305-328, 2020. DOI: 10.1306/05021918117

    Abstract: The Parnaíba Basin is a major intracratonic sedimentary basin in Brazil with unconventional petroleum systems as a potential natural resource formed by the influence of igneous intrusions. To constrain the thermal history of unexplored potential reservoir rocks in the eastern part of the Parnaíba Basin, sedimentary rocks near intrusions were analyzed by petrography and thermochronology (apatite fission-track [AFT] and zircon fission-track [ZFT] dating). Petrography shows grain dissolution and carbonate pore filling generated by thermal destabilization of feldspars. The AFT results indicate partial annealing by the last magmatic event in the basin, and ZFT results show ages of maximum paleotemperature compatible with the Sardinha magmatic event (120–130 Ma). In thermal history models, rocks close to intrusions experienced maximum paleotemperatures above 300°C, which is higher than what is considered favorable for reservoir rocks. Hydrothermal fluids modified the diagenetic evolution of the succession by dissolving and precipitating carbonate cement in pore spaces. In the studied area, at distances greater than 50m(>164 ft) from the intrusion, the rocks were not substantially altered, and in terms of paleotemperature, they can be considered potentially viable reservoirs. The thermal history analysis of potential tight gas sandstone reservoirs affected by intrusive bodies is valuable for characterizing the thermal enhancement or destruction of the reservoir’s qualities.

    Palavras-Chave: sedimentary basins; natural gas; reservoir rock; geologic deposits; petrography; sandstones; brazil; sedimentary rocks; petroleum geology

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  • IPEN-DOC 27143

    MATOS, B.R. . The genuine ac-to-dc proton conductivity crossover of nafion and polymer dielectric relaxations as a fuel cell polarization loss. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, v. 871, p. 1-13, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2020.114357

    Abstract: The non-ohmic behavior of Nafion electrical properties, i. e., the thickness and potential dependent conductivity, was studied in the impedance, dielectric and conductivity representations with the use of a special through-plane sampleholder in a 4-probe array. Such measurements allowed identifying the genuine ac-to-dc conductivity crossover frequency in Nafion, which occurs for f<10-1 Hz. In addition, the minimization of the interfacial electrode/ionomer polarizations with the 4-probe setup permitted the determination of the bulk dc conductivity and dielectric constant of Nafion, which are σ~0.03 Scm-1 and ε′~106 (T=40 °Cand RH=100%), respectively. The colossal dielectric constant is shown to increase the Debye length of the electric double layer to values comparable to the membrane thickness. Therefore, the exponential increase of the proton conductivity with increasing both membrane thickness and electric potential are a result of canceling out the non-linear effects of electric double layer caused by the high dielectric permittivity of Nafion. The ac-to-dc conductivity crossover in H2/O2 fuel cell impedance curves takes place for f<100 Hz and matches with the ex situ impedance spectroscopy study in excellent agreement, revealing a striking result: the potential dependent conductivity of Nafion requires extra fuel cell overpotential to overcome the electrode/ionomer interfacial polarization representing an additional polarization loss to polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    Palavras-Chave: ionic conductivity; electric conductivity; electrical properties; fuel cells; electric fields; layers; dielectric properties; electrical properties; nonlinear problems; nmr imaging; spectroscopy

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  • IPEN-DOC 25091

    FAZOLIN, GABRIELA N. ; VARCA, GUSTAVO H.C. ; KADLUBOWSKI, SLAWOMIR; SOWINSKI, SEBASTIAN; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . The effects of radiation and experimental conditions over papain nanoparticle formation: towards a new generation synthesis. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 169, p. 1-8, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.08.033

    Abstract: Papain is a natural enzyme extracted from the fruit of Carica papaya Linnaeus, successfully applied in the pharmaceutical area as a drug carrier and debridement agent for wounds. In recent studies papain nanoparticles were synthesized and crosslinked with the use of ionizing radiation in the search for biopharmaceutical advantages as well as the development of bioactive nanocarriers. This study addresses the effects of buffer molarity and irradiation conditions on papain nanoparticles formation. Nanoparticles were synthesized on ice bath using ethanol (20%, v/v) as a cosolvent and crosslinked by gamma radiation using a 60Co source. Experimental variables included the synthesis in deionized water and in 1, 10, 25 and 50mM phosphate buffer, under different temperatures of −20 °C, 0 °C and 20 °C before and throughout the irradiation period, and using radiation dose rates of 0.8, 2, 5 and 10 kGy h−1 to reach the dose of 10 kGy. Proteolytic activity was quantified using Nα- benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride. Nanoparticle size and crosslinking by means of bityrosine were evaluated by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence measurements, respectively. Buffer molarity and radiation dose rate were identified to influence bityrosine formation and proteolytic activity without impacting nanoparticle size. Variations in temperature impacted bityrosine formation exclusively. Optimized conditions for papain nanoparticle synthesis were achieved using 50mM phosphate buffer at the dose rate of 5 kGy h−1 and temperature of 0 °C throughout the process.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; cross-linking; dose rates; gamma radiation; irradiation; nanoparticles; papain; radiation doses; synthesis

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  • IPEN-DOC 26885

    KLUMPP, RAFAEL E. ; DONATUS, UYIME ; ARAUJO, JOAO V.S. ; REDÍGOLO, MARCELO M. ; MACHADO, CARULINE de S.C. ; COSTA, ISOLDA . The effect of acid pickling on the corrosion behavior of a cerium conversion-coated AA2198-T851 Al-Cu-Li alloy. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, v. 29, n. 1, p. 167-174, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s11665-019-04551-9

    Abstract: The effect of acid pickling pretreatments prior to cerium conversion coating process on the corrosion behavior of AA2198-T851 alloy substrates was investigated. Three acid pretreatments were employed: nitric acid (HNO3), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The cerium conversion coating process was performed using a batch solution composed of cerium nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Microscopic techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization resistance and open-circuit potential measurements were employed to investigate the effect of each acid pretreatment. The untreated and nitric acid pretreated substrates presented more defective cerium conversion layers than the substrates treated with phosphoric and sulfuric acids. Accordingly, the corrosion resistance of the untreated and nitric acid-treated substrates was very low, while that of the substrates treated with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acids were greatly improved. The sulfuric acid pickling treatment was the best pretreatment before cerium conversion coating among the investigated pretreatments on the AA2198-T851 Al-Cu-Li alloy.

    Palavras-Chave: inorganic acids; pickling; corrosion pickling; cerium; nitric acid; phosphoric acid; sulfuric acid; coatings; conversion; aluminium alloys; lithium alloys; copper alloys; electrochemistry; corrosion resistance

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  • IPEN-DOC 26513

    SANTOS, ADIMIR dos ; DINIZ, RICARDO . The correlation matrix for the effective delayed neutron parameters of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Annals of Nuclear Energy, v. 136, p. 1-7, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2019.107008

    Abstract: The correlation matrix for the effective delayed neutron parameters of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor has been successfully built in this work. A standard procedure employed in several least-squares approaches was adopted to cope with this task. One of the most important applications of the effective delayed neutron parameters is to serve as input data for the relationship between reactivity and asymptotic period of a nuclear reactor given by the Inhour equation. Employing this equation, the reactivity was calculated for several periods both negative and positive. The reactivity error propagation was considered with and without the correlation matrix. The analyses of this procedure reveal that the consideration of the correlation matrix is very important. In general, the introduction of the correlation matrix reduces the overall uncertainty by a reasonable amount. There are huge cancellations in the uncertainty analyses. The analyses also reveal that the uncertainty in the reactivity will depend on the specific period range where this quantity is considered. Considering the correlation and for most of the period range considered, the reactivity uncertainties for negative periods are around 3.5% while for positive ones they are nearly 2%. If the correlation matrix is not considered the reactivity uncertainties are as high as 6%. All uncertainties considered in this work are 1-r values. There are two extreme cases where the correlation matrix plays no role; very large negative periods and very small positive periods. In the first case, the first decay constant plays a fundamental role while in the second the prompt neutron generation is of major importance. The experiments performed at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor and evaluated for inclusion in the IRPhE handbook for the determination of the effective delayed neutron parameters will be extremely benefited considering the inclusion of their correlation matrix. The final product can be considered extremely useful to validate methods and nuclear data related to the reactivity determination of thermal reactors fueled with Uranium.

    Palavras-Chave: reactivity; reactivity coefficients; delayed neutrons; transients; correlations; matrix elements; reactor noise; reactor components; thermal reactors; brazilian cnen

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  • IPEN-DOC 27104

    SANTOS, G.A. dos; FIGUEIREDO, W.; SCHMITT, Y.P.; NASCIMENTO, M.S.; MIRANDA, F.; BATALHA, G.F.; COUTO, A.A. . Study on closed-die forging in stainless steel as standard ASTM F138 in grain size function. In: ÖCHSNER, ANDREAS (Ed.); ALTENBACH, HOLM (Ed.). Engineering Design Applications II: Structures, Materials and Processes. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland, 2020. p. 133-153, (Advanced Structured Materials, 113). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-20801-1_10

    Abstract: Forging is a bulk deformation process in metal working commonly employed in the manufacture of metallic materials prostheses. Depending on the compressive loads applied to the material, structures (grain sizes) are formed which increase its strength. By forging an ASTM F138 stainless steel, the heating of material in a suitable temperature is of fundamental importance to be formed without the presence of folds arising from the process and as a result we can obtain a proper microstructure. This work aims to define the accurate temperature in relation to the strain rate applied in the hot die forging process. Besides, it is used a closed-die forging in which cavity has different thickness that stimulates the profile of an orthopedic plate. Four ranges of temperature used in the process vary between 1000 and 1200 °C, with a strain rate ranging from 400 to 600 s−1.Results demonstrate that there is a transitional temperature close to 1050 °C, where temperatures of 1000–1040 °C provide satisfactory grain size and temperatures of 1100 and 1200 °C, showed limitations in grain size, greater than those recommended by ASTM F 621.

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  • IPEN-DOC 27123

    MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.; BRAVO-ARANDA, JUAN A.; FOYO-MORENO, INMACULADA; CAZORLA, ALBERTO; ALADOS, INMACULADA; LYAMANI, HASSAN; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS. Study of the planetary boundary layer height in an urban environment using a combination of microwave radiometer and ceilometer. Atmospheric Research, v. 240, p. 1-15, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.104932

    Abstract: The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is an important part of the atmosphere that is relevant in different atmospheric fields like pollutant dispersion, and weather forecasting. In this study, we analyze four and five-year datasets of measurements gathered with a ceilometer and a microwave radiometer to study the PBL structure respectively, in the mid-latitude urban area of Granada (Spain). The methodologies applied for the PBL Height (PBLH) detection (gradient method for ceilometer and the combination of parcel method and temperature gradient method for microwave radiometer) provided a description in agreement with the literature about the PBL structure under simple scenarios. Then, the PBLH behavior is characterized by a statistical study of the convective and stable situations, so that the PBLH was obtained from microwave radiometer measurements. The analysis of the PBLH statistical study shows some agreement with other PBLH studies such as daily pattern and yearly cycle, and the discrepancies were explained in terms of distinct latitudes, topography and climate conditions. Finally, it was performed a joint long-term analysis of the residual layer (RL) provided by ceilometer and the stable and convective layer heights determined by microwave radiometer, offering a complete picture of the PBL evolution by synergetic combination of remote sensing techniques. The PBL behavior has been used for explaining the daily cycle of Black Carbon (BC) concentration, used as tracer of the pollutants emissions associated to traffic.

    Palavras-Chave: boundary layers; urban areas; atmospheres; clouds; microwave radiation; radiometers; weather; cloud cover; remote sensing; climates; monitoring

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  • IPEN-DOC 26884

    BENTO, RODRIGO T. ; FERRUS FILHO, ANDRE; FUMAGALLI, MARCO A.. Structural design and stress analysis of a high-speed turbogenerator assembly supported by hydrodynamic bearings. International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering, v. 10, n. 1, p. 54-67, 2020. DOI: 10.4018/IJMMME.2020010104

    Abstract: Turbine and bushing bearing are the most critical components of high-speed machines. This article describes the design of a high-speed turbine supported by hydrodynamic bearings. The mathematical dimensioning and the FEM analysis are presented to validate the mechanical strength of the turbine and the bushing bearing models. Fatigue life and factor of safety were also determined. The simulations showed that the maximum Von Mises stress values obtained are associated to the centrifugal force generated by the system rotational movement. The results variation was mainly due to the properties of the materials proposed. For the turbine, 7075-T6 aluminum alloy and SAE 4340 steel obtained satisfactory behavior under a constant operating speed of 30,000 RPM. For the hydrodynamic bearing, the TM23 bronze alloy exhibited excellent results, without fracture, and low mechanical deformation. The models exhibited a great potential employment in several applications, such as biogas systems to generate electrical energy, and educational test bench for thermodynamic and tribological simulations.

    Palavras-Chave: steam turbines; velocity; hydrodynamics; bearings; finite element method; design; stress analysis; wind turbines; turbogenerators

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  • IPEN-DOC 27160

    ARAUJO, MARIANA S. ; SILVA, ANTONIO C. ; BARTOLOMÉ, JOSÉ F.; MELLO-CASTANHO, SONIA . Structural and thermal behavior of 45S5 Bioglass®-based compositions containing alumina and strontium. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, v. 103, n. 6, p. 3620-3630, 2020. DOI: 10.1111/jace.17061

    Abstract: The present research exposes the influence of 2 mol% of Al2O3 and 2 mol% SrO in 45S5 Bioglass®-based compositions. Four compositions were produced to elucidate the difference in how both oxides influence structure and thermal behavior separately and their synergy when together. Thermal properties, crystallization tendency, and sintering behavior was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, and dilatometry. Changes of medium-range structures were characterized by Qn distribution of Raman spectroscopy and evaluation of 31P, 27Al, 23Na, and 29Si environment obtained by magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Despite Qn distribution was predominantly Q2 in all samples, the composition criteria used enabled improved processing and stabilibity characteristics. The addition of Al2O3 and SrO promoted larger sinterability parameter (Sc) which indicates better sintering behavior, the glass stability against crystallization doubled (KH) compared to 45S5 and the processing window enlarged from 106 to 171.

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  • IPEN-DOC 27128

    VIEIRA, LAÍS H.S.; SABINO, CARLA M.S.; SOARES JÚNIOR, FRANCISCO H.; ROCHA, JANAINA S.; CASTRO, MANUELA O.; ALENCAR, RAFAEL S.; COSTA, LUELC S. da; VIANA, BARTOLOMEU C.; PAULA, AMAURI J. de; SOARES, JOAO M.; SOUZA FILHO, ANTONIO G.; OTUBO, LARISSA ; FECHINE, PIERRE B.A.; GHOSH, ANUPAMA; FERREIRA, ODAIR P.. Strategic design of magnetic carbonaceous nanocomposites and its application as multifunctional adsorbent. Carbon, v. 161, p. 758-771, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2020.01.089

    Abstract: Magnetic carbonaceous nanocomposites (MCN) were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a carbohydrate in the presence of Fe3þ, followed by thermal treatment with KOH for simultaneous activation and magnetization. The precursor formed (IOCN) in the HTC process contained iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the hydrochar matrix. The thermochemical parameters of the activation (temperature and IOCN/KOH mass-ratio) were varied to achieve an increase of the specific surface area along with formation of magnetic phases in MCN compared to IOCN. Activation temperature was found to be responsible for the structural and morphological properties of the MCNs whereas the IOCN/KOH mass-ratio controlled the porosity. The magnetic properties of the MCNs originated from the formation of Fe3O4 and Fe0 phases, which are encapsulated in the carbonaceous material. The MCNs were tested for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye, followed by magnetic separation. The MCN, produced in the optimized conditions, showed a specific surface area of 766 m2 g 1, magnetization of 8 emu g 1 and a MB adsorption capacity of 570 mg g 1. Detailed kinetic and isotherm studies of MB adsorption were also performed. The methodology of simultaneous activation and magnetization to generate MCNs, presented here, could be extended to obtain new multifunctional carbon-based nanocomposite adsorbent starting from different biomasses.

    Palavras-Chave: nanocomposites; carbonaceous materials; magnetic materials; magnetic fields; iron oxides; hydrothermal systems; adsorbents; carbon

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  • IPEN-DOC 27135

    LOCOSSELLI, GIULIANO M.; MOREIRA, TIANA C.L.; CHACON-MADRID, KATHERINE; ARRUDA, MARCO A.Z.; CAMARGO, EVELYN P. de; KAMIGAUTI, LEONARDO Y.; TRINDADE, RICARDO I.F. da; ANDRADE, MARIA de F.; ANDRE, CARMEN D.S. de; ANDRE, PAULO A. de; SINGER, JULIO M.; SAIKI, MITIKO ; ZACCARELLI-MARINO, MARIA A.; SALDIVA, PAULO H.N.; BUCKERIDGE, MARCOS S.. Spatial-temporal variability of metal pollution across an industrial district, evidencing the environmental inequality in São Paulo. Environmental Pollution, v. 263, Part A, p. 1-8, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114583

    Abstract: Although air pollution decreased in some cities that shifted from an industrial to a service-based economy, and vehicular emission regulation became more restrictive, it is still a major risk factor for mortality worldwide. In central S~ao Paulo, Brazil, air quality monitoring stations and tree-ring analyses revealed a decreasing trend in the concentrations of particulate matter and metals. Such trends, however, may not be observed in industrial districts located in the urban periphery, where the usual mobile sources may be combined with local stationary sources. To evaluate environmental pollution in an industrial district in southeastern S~ao Paulo, we assessed its spatial variability, by measuring magnetic properties and concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Sr, Zn in the bark of 62 trees, and its temporal trends, by measuring Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn in tree rings of three trees. Source apportionment analysis based on tree barks revealed two clusters with high concentrations of metals, one related to vehicular and industrial emissions (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Zn) in the east side of the industrial cluster, and the other related to soil resuspension (Cu, Zn, Mn) in its west side. These patterns are also supported by the magnetic properties of bark associated with iron oxides and titanium-iron alloy concentrations. Dendrochemical analyses revealed that only the concentrations of Pb consistently decreased over the last four decades. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn did not significantly decrease over time, in contrast with their negative trends previously reported in central S~ao Paulo. This combined biomonitoring approach revealed spatial clusters of metal concentration in the vicinity of this industrial cluster and showed that the local population has not benefited from the decreasing polluting metal concentrations in the last decades.

    Palavras-Chave: pollution; air pollution; air pollution monitoring; trees; bark; tree rings; microanalysis; vehicles; gaseous wastes; environmental impacts; brazil

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  • IPEN-DOC 26736

    VIRGINIO, SUELI de A. . Sílica do tipo SBA-15 sintetizada por radiação gama e sua aplicação em compósitos de resina epóxi / SBA-15 silica synthesized by gamma radiation and its application on epoxy resin composites . 2020. Dissertação (Mestrado em Tecnologia Nuclear) - Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo. 85 p. Orientador: Margarida Mizue Hamada. DOI: 10.11606/D.85.2020.tde-12032020-091026

    Abstract: A sílica mesoporosa nanoestruturada SBA-15 é definida como uma peneira molecular cuja base em sílica possui estrutura de poro hexagonal.Para obtê-la é preciso realizar uma reação química entre uma substância que funciona como molde chamado de "template" e uma fonte de sílica em meio ácido. O template permite a formação de micelas, as quais fornecem uma estrutura específica e a fonte de sílica preenche essas estruturas micelares. Posteriormente a mistura é aquecida (100°C) por 48 h - o que é chamado tratamento hidrotérmico - e após resfriamento, filtragem, lavagem, secagem e calcinação (500-550°C), as partículas estão prontas para serem usadas. Nesse trabalho, a proposta foi substituir a etapa hidrotérmica pelo processo de irradiação gama em doses de 0,5 kGy a 100 kGy para conseguir partículas com morfologia semelhante às do método clássico. Observou-se que as partículas de sílica obtidas pelo método da irradiação apresentaram alta área superficial e poros dispostos com diâmetro na escala nanométrica e com morfologia hexagonal. As imagens de MET confirmaram essa ordenação hexagonal do poro na SBA-15 mesmo produzidas em baixas doses. As partículas obtidas tanto pelo método clássico quanto pelo método da irradiação foram utilizadas como carga após sua dispersão em resina epóxi. A dispersão das partículas de sílica aconteceu segundo duas metodologias: a) mistura por fusão, onde as partículas de sílica são dispersas na resina a quente e b) mistura por solvente, onde as partículas de sílica são dispersas na mistura resina/acetona para evitar a aglomeração da fase inorgânica. As imagens de microscopia óptica e MEV revelaram homogeneidade na mistura partícula/resina no seio do material polimérico quando se utiliza o método com solvente, no entanto os compósitos obtidos (dispersão por solvente), apresentaram Tg com valor abaixo da resina epóxi padrão e baixa resistência mecânica.

    Palavras-Chave: silicates; nanotechnology; nanostructures; epoxides; ; ligases; gamma radiation; low dose irradiation; transmission electron microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; image processing

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A pesquisa no RD utiliza os recursos de busca da maioria das bases de dados. No entanto algumas dicas podem auxiliar para obter um resultado mais pertinente.

É possível efetuar a busca de um autor ou um termo em todo o RD, por meio do Buscar no Repositório , isto é, o termo solicitado será localizado em qualquer campo do RD. No entanto esse tipo de pesquisa não é recomendada a não ser que se deseje um resultado amplo e generalizado.

A pesquisa apresentará melhor resultado selecionando um dos filtros disponíveis em Navegar

Os filtros disponíveis em Navegar tais como: Coleções, Ano de publicação, Títulos, Assuntos, Autores, Revista, Tipo de publicação são autoexplicativos. O filtro, Autores IPEN apresenta uma relação com os autores vinculados ao IPEN; o ID Autor IPEN diz respeito ao número único de identificação de cada autor constante no RD e sob o qual estão agrupados todos os seus trabalhos independente das variáveis do seu nome; Tipo de acesso diz respeito à acessibilidade do documento, isto é , sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, ID RT apresenta a relação dos relatórios técnicos, restritos para consulta das comunidades indicadas.

A opção Busca avançada utiliza os conectores da lógica boleana, é o melhor recurso para combinar chaves de busca e obter documentos relevantes à sua pesquisa, utilize os filtros apresentados na caixa de seleção para refinar o resultado de busca. Pode-se adicionar vários filtros a uma mesma busca.

Exemplo:

Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

Autor: Maprelian

Título: loss of coolant

Tipo de publicação: Texto completo de evento

Ano de publicação: 2015

Para indexação dos documentos é utilizado o Thesaurus do INIS, especializado na área nuclear e utilizado em todos os países membros da International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA , por esse motivo, utilize os termos de busca de assunto em inglês; isto não exclui a busca livre por palavras, apenas o resultado pode não ser tão relevante ou pertinente.

95% do RD apresenta o texto completo do documento com livre acesso, para aqueles que apresentam o significa que e o documento está sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, solicita-se nesses casos contatar a Biblioteca do IPEN, bibl@ipen.br .

Ao efetuar a busca por um autor o RD apresentará uma relação de todos os trabalhos depositados no RD. No lado direito da tela são apresentados os coautores com o número de trabalhos produzidos em conjunto bem como os assuntos abordados e os respectivos anos de publicação agrupados.

O RD disponibiliza um quadro estatístico de produtividade, onde é possível visualizar o número dos trabalhos agrupados por tipo de coleção, a medida que estão sendo depositados no RD.

Na página inicial nas referências são sinalizados todos os autores IPEN, ao clicar nesse símbolo será aberta uma nova página correspondente à aquele autor – trata-se da página do pesquisador.

Na página do pesquisador, é possível verificar, as variações do nome, a relação de todos os trabalhos com texto completo bem como um quadro resumo numérico; há links para o Currículo Lattes e o Google Acadêmico ( quando esse for informado).

ATENÇÃO!

ESTE TEXTO "AJUDA" ESTÁ SUJEITO A ATUALIZAÇÕES CONSTANTES, A MEDIDA QUE NOVAS FUNCIONALIDADES E RECURSOS DE BUSCA FOREM SENDO DESENVOLVIDOS PELAS EQUIPES DA BIBLIOTECA E DA INFORMÁTICA.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

1. Portaria IPEN-CNEN/SP nº 387, que estabeleceu os princípios que nortearam a criação do RDI, clique aqui.


2. A experiência do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) na criação de um Repositório Digital Institucional – RDI, clique aqui.