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  • IPEN-DOC 28010

    OTOMO, JULIANA I.; JESUS, TATIANE A de; COELHO, LÚCIA H.G.; MONTEIRO, LUCILENA R. ; HUNTER, COLIN; HELWIG, KARIN; ROBERTS, JOANNE; PAHL, OLE. Effect of eight common Brazilian drugs on Lemna minor and Salvinia auriculata growth. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 32, p. 43747-43762, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13795-9

    Abstract: The growth of two species of macrophytes (Lemna minor and Salvinia auriculata) under the effect of a mixture of amoxicillin, caffeine, carbamazepine, dipyrone, ibuprofen, losartan, omeprazole, and tenivastatin was investigated by bioassay. Three concentration levels were utilized in this study (10, 200, and 500 μg L−1) using a growth inhibition test based on the OECD 221/2006 guidelines. The frond number, total area, and chlorophyll a level were selected as suitable end points. For L. minor, at all concentrations, a significant difference in the total frond number was observed and the growth inhibition varied from 30 to 70% at the low and high concentrations, respectively. No significant growth change was observed to S. auriculata exposed to the mixture of drugs. Thus, individual drug tests were performed for L. minor which demonstrated stimulation in growth, when exposed to most drugs individually, except tenivastatin which was identified as the drug responsible for the significant growth inhibition seen in the mixture. The L. minor enhanced growth was probably caused by N molecule transformation to ammonium and nitrate, essential nutrients for plants.

  • IPEN-DOC 27964

    GATTI, LUCIANA V. ; BASSO, LUANA S.; MILLER, JOHN B.; GLOOR, MANUEL; DOMINGUES, LUCAS G. ; CASSOL, HENRIQUE L.G.; TEJADA, GRACIELA; ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.; NOBRE, CARLOS; PETERS, WOUTER; MARANI, LUCIANO; ARAI, EGIDIO; SANCHES, ALBER H.; CORREA, SERGIO M.; ANDERSON, LIANA; VON RANDOW, CELSO; CORREIA, CAIO S.C. ; CRISPIM, STEPHANE P.; NEVES, RAIANE A.L.. Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change. Nature, v. 595, n. 7867, p. 388-393, 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03629-6

    Abstract: Amazonia hosts the Earth’s largest tropical forests and has been shown to be an important carbon sink over recent decades. This carbon sink seems to be in decline, however, as a result of factors such as deforestation and climate change. Here we investigate Amazonia’s carbon budget and the main drivers responsible for its change into a carbon source. We performed 590 aircraft vertical profiling measurements of lower-tropospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at four sites in Amazonia from 2010 to 2018. We find that total carbon emissions are greater in eastern Amazonia than in the western part, mostly as a result of spatial differences in carbon-monoxide-derived fire emissions. Southeastern Amazonia, in particular, acts as a net carbon source (total carbon flux minus fire emissions) to the atmosphere. Over the past 40 years, eastern Amazonia has been subjected to more deforestation, warming and moisture stress than the western part, especially during the dry season, with the southeast experiencing the strongest trends. We explore the effect of climate change and deforestation trends on carbon emissions at our study sites, and find that the intensification of the dry season and an increase in deforestation seem to promote ecosystem stress, increase in fire occurrence, and higher carbon emissions in the eastern Amazon. This is in line with recent studies that indicate an increase in tree mortality and a reduction in photosynthesis as a result of climatic changes across Amazonia.

    Palavras-Chave: climatic change; burns; carbon sources; emission; deforestation; troposphere; temperature measurement; environmental impacts; amazon river

  • IPEN-DOC 27932

    BORGES, EDUARDO M. ; SABUNDJIAN, GAIANE . Small break loss of coolant accident of 200 cm² in cold leg of primary loop of Angra2 nuclear power reactor evaluation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1274

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is evaluated the consequences to ANGRA 2 nuclear power reactor and to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used by RELAP5/MOD3.2.gama code in ANGRA 2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 200cm2 of rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of ANGRA 2 (FSAR-A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of ANGRA 2 during the postulated accident. The results obtained for ANGRA 2 nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident were satisfactory when compared with the FSAR-A2. Additionally, the results showed the correct actuation of the ECCS guaranteeing the integrity of the reactor core.

    Palavras-Chave: cladding; reactor cores; voids; heat transfer; coolant circuits; sbloca; steady-state conditions; two-phase flow; eccs; reactor accident simulation

  • IPEN-DOC 27931

    OLIVEIRA, ELLISON A. de ; OLIVEIRA, PATRICIA da S.P. de ; MATTAR NETO, MIGUEL ; MATURANA, MARCOS C.. Overview of seismic probabilistic safety assessment applied to a nuclear installation located in a low seismicity zone. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-19, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1560

    Abstract: Deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis methodologies have been developed and updated based on operational experience, investigation of past incidents or accidents, and analysis of postulated initiating events in nuclear plants in order to maintain the protection of workers, the public and the environment. The evaluation of accident sequences and the total radiological risk resulting from off-site releases are general objectives addressed by these methodologies. There are hazards that continually challenge the safety of a nuclear facility or its nearby area. In particular, seismic events represent a major contributor to the risk of a nuclear accident. Different levels of ground motion induced by earthquakes may be experienced by structures, systems and components (SSCs) of an installation. In this context, a seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand analysis and seismic fragility analysis must be carried out in order to characterize the local seismic hazard and seismic demands on SSCs, allowing an adequate seismic classification of SSCs, even for installations located in sites with low seismicity. In this article, a general description of the Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (Seismic PSA) methodology is presented, emphasizing the supporting studies. This methodology shall be applied to an experimental nuclear installation containing a PWR reactor designed for naval propulsion to be installed in a low seismicity zone in Brazil.

    Palavras-Chave: safety analisys; nuclear facilities; risk assessment; seismicity; earthquakes; hazards; probabilistic estimation

  • IPEN-DOC 27930

    STEFANI, GIOVANNI L. de ; GENEZINI, FREDERICO A. ; SANTOS, THIAGO A. dos ; MOREIRA, JOAO M. de L.. Parametric study for enhancing the radioisotope production in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-20, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1516

    Abstract: In this work a parametric study was carried to increase the production of radioisotopes in the IEA-R1 research reactor. The changes proposed to implement in the IEA-R1 reactor core were the substitution of graphite reflectors by beryllium reflectors, the removal of 4 fuel elements to reduce the core size and make available 4 additional locations to be occupied by radioisotope irradiation devices. The key variable analyzed is the thermal neutron flux in the irradiation devices. The proposed configuration with 20 fuel elements in an approximately cylindrical geometry provided higher average neutron flux (average increment of 12.9 %) allowing higher radioisotope production capability. In addition, it provided 4 more positions to install irradiation devices which allow a larger number of simultaneous irradiations practically doubling the capacity of radioisotope production in the IEA-R1 reactor. The insertion of Be reflector elements in the core has to be studied carefully since it tends to promote strong neutron flux redistribution in the core. A verification of design and safety parameters of the proposed core was carried out. The annual fuel consumption will increase about 17 % and more storage space for spent fuel will be required.

    Palavras-Chave: radioisotopes; fuel elements; beryllium; delayed neutrons; isotope production; neutron flux; spent fuels; thermal neutrons

  • IPEN-DOC 27929

    VIEIRA NETO, ANTONIO S. ; OLIVA, AMAURY M.; OLIVEIRA, PATRICIA da S.P. de ; HUNOLD, MARCOS C.; SAUER, MARIA E.L.J. ; ANDREA, VINICIUS . Knowledge base about risk and safety of nuclear facilities to support analysts and decision-makers. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1501

    Abstract: Epistemic uncertainty (related to lack of knowledge), often found in the documentation of nuclear facility engineering projects, can affect the decision-making process of managers and analysts on safety and risk issues. This article conceptualizes the nature of the major uncertainties involved in engineering projects. It describes a knowledge base developed to gather data and information related to an Open-Pool Light-water Research Reactor (OPLRR) project and whose purpose is to assist professionals who work in nuclear facilities. To reduce the epistemic uncertainties that may arise in the project, the OPLRR knowledge base is designed with a set of information that allows identifying and facilitating the forwarding of solutions to address inconsistencies and/or pending issues that may exist in the project. In this sense, the information and the documents related to the project are organized in a graphical and hierarchical architecture, allowing the knowledge base users to quickly and easily obtain information regarding the systems, processes, equipment, and components of the project. Besides that, a set of documents containing descriptions, reliability data, and some other information about the systems and components are specially created to the knowledge base, and it is crucial to reduce epistemic uncertainties once it raises the issues and the inconsistencies of the project, as well as it clarifies the interrelations between the systems, the functioning of the equipment, their failures modes and the consequences of their failures, and some other data, which are not originally contained in the documents of the project.

    Palavras-Chave: knowledge base; information dissemination; data acquisition systems; decision making; failure mode analysis; pool type reactors

  • IPEN-DOC 27928

    FREITAS NETO, LUIZ G. de ; FREIRE, LUCIANO O. ; SANTOS, ADIMIR dos ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de . Potential advantages of molten salt reactor for merchant ship propulsion. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1466

    Abstract: Operating costs of merchant ships, related to fuel costs, has led the naval industry to search alternatives to the current technologies of propulsion power. A possibility is to employ nuclear reactors like the Russian KLT-40S, which is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and has experience on civilian surface vessels. However, space and weight are critical factors in a nuclear propulsion project, in addition to operational safety and costs. This work aims at comparing molten salt reactors (MSR) with PWR for merchant ship propulsion. The present study develops a qualitative analysis on weight, volume, overnight costs, fuel costs and nuclear safety. This work compares the architecture and operational conditions of these two types of reactors. The result is that MSR may produce lower amounts of high-activity nuclear tailings and, if it adopts the U233-thorium cycle, it may have lower risks of proliferating nuclear weapons. Besides proliferation issues, this 4th generation reactor may have lower weight, occupy less space, and achieve the same levels of safety with less investment. Thus, molten salt regenerative reactors using the U233-thorium cycle are potential candidates for use in ship propulsion.

    Palavras-Chave: ship propulsion reactors; nuclear merchant ships; comparative evaluations; molten salt reactors; nuclear fuels; radiation protection; reactor safety

  • IPEN-DOC 27927

    FREIRE, LUCIANO O. ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de . Entering new markets: nuclear industry challenges. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2B, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2B.1463

    Abstract: Nuclear ship propulsion and isolated islands energy supply are unexplored markets for nuclear vendors. Carbon taxes and fuel regulations may make fossil fuels more expensive. Such markets pay more for energy because of organization and transport costs and use of small machines, which are less efficient than grid generators. The goal of this work is to find the measures the nuclear industry needs to take to get into new potential markets. This work shows the different actors and their interests and points the natural or physical constraints they face. Considering interests and constraints, this work named the most probable market niches where nuclear power may beat other power sources. After considering natural constraints, this paper analyses human-generated constraints and presents a way on how to mitigate or solve them. This study shows that nuclear industry needs to take technical, administrative, and political measures before nuclear power arrives to a wider market. This work is based on literature review and qualitative analysis and cannot point precise thresholds where nuclear power should be competitive. Future work will consist of statistical analysis to find precise thresholds to help in the decision-making process.

    Palavras-Chave: nuclear ships; ; nuclear industry; propulsion reactors; nuclear power; market; political aspects; energy sources

  • IPEN-DOC 27926

    GIOVEDI, C.; ABE, A. ; MUNIZ, R.O.R. ; GOMES, D.S. ; SILVA, A.T. ; MARTINS, M.R.. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2A.393

    Abstract: Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN fuel performance codes to evaluate the behavior of iron-based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes.

    Palavras-Chave: ; stainless steel-348; accident-tolerant nuclear fuels; fuel rods; iron alloys; computerized simulation; f codes; loss of coolant; pwr type reactors

  • IPEN-DOC 27925

    SAKAI, M.C.C.B. ; RIELLA, H.G. ; CARVALHO, E.F.U. . Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2A.620

    Abstract: The Brazil with the purpose of becoming self-sufficient in the production of radioisotopes and radioactive sources used in nuclear medicine, agriculture and the environment developed the project of a multipurpose reactor of 30 megawatts of power to attend the national demand. In the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) is responsible for the manufacture of fuel for the reactor IEA-R1 and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for the reactors was designed a new manufacturing plant with a maximum capacity of 60 fuel elements, which is 10 nowadays. The increase in production as a consequence will increase the volume of effluents generated. The current concern with the environment it is necessary to draw up a management plan to make the process sustainable, which will result in environmental, economic and social benefits. The fuel production process generates various types of effluent containing uranium or not – being solid, gaseous and liquid with different physical and chemical characteristics. The aim of this work is to follow the process of nuclear fuel production and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially liquids, to subsequently draw up a management plan and eventually dispose of responsibly in the environment.

    Palavras-Chave: radioactive waste management; radioactive effluents; environmental impacts; liquid wastes; nuclear fuels; production

  • IPEN-DOC 27924

    DAMASCENO, M.O. ; MARQUES, F.A. da S.; DIAS, R.R. ; SANTOS, J.L. ; FORBICINI, C.A.L.G.O. . Study of new routes for purification of fission 99Mo. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2.1623

    Abstract: 99mTc is the most used medical radioisotope in the world, especially for diagnosis procedures. It is originated in the radioactive decay of 99Mo, which in turn is one of the fission products of the uranium irradiation that occurs in nuclear reactors. The chemical processing of 99Mo might be lined up in several steps according to the characteristics of the targets or the local requirements in order to separate it from other fission products. In this work, two routes of 99Mo purification, MR1 and MR2, were purposed as an alternative method to be set up in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor project. The MR1 route consisted by three consecutives chromatographic columns packed with strong anionic resin, Chelating resin, and aluminum oxide, respectively. The MR2 route was arranged in two chromatographic columns and a sublimation oven. The final yield for the MR1 was 84.4% and the overall time process was about 7 hours, performing the highest final 99Mo recovery efficiency, high decontamination degree and a shorter process time compared to the MR2.

    Palavras-Chave: fission; molybdenum 99; purification; routing; extraction columns

  • IPEN-DOC 27923

    TEIXEIRA, B.S. ; CHIERENTIN, G.S. ; DEL MASTRO, N.L. . Impact of electron beam irradiation in potato starch films containing hibiscus aqueous extract. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 2, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i2.1704

    Abstract: The development of starch films containing natural antioxidants is one alternative of active packaging. Starch is a well studied natural biopolymer that can be used for the development of biodegradable films because it presents a low cost, is easy to obtain and presents good ability to form films. Hibiscus sabdariffa, commonly known as roselle or red sorrel, is an annual her baceous sub shrub that contains many types of biocompounds, including organic and phenolic acids. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on potato starch film containing hibiscus extract. The aqueous hibiscu s solution was prepared by boiling for 3 min 1% w/ml dehydrated hibiscus flowers in 500 ml deionized water. The film forming solution was prepared by casting ( potato starch, 3% glycerol as plasticizer and the hibiscus solution) and irradiated in a 1.5 M eV electron beam accelerator Dynamitron II (Radiation Dynamics Inc.), with doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kGy. After drying some mechanical properties were measured. The tensile strength of the control films and the irradiated ones was established. There were n o significant differences among them. Hibiscus antioxidants were able to prevent the starch radiation degradation process caused by radiation induced free radicals.

    Palavras-Chave: antioxidants; electron beams; films; polymers; potatoes; solubility; starch; tensile properties; thickness

  • IPEN-DOC 27922

    OLIVEIRA, L.P. ; SOUZA, A.P.S. ; YOKAICHIYA, F.; GENEZINI, F.A. ; FRANCO, M.K.K.D. . Study on s-shaped guide using mcstas software. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1549

    Abstract: Monte Carlo simulations are performed for a vertical S-shaped neutron guide for the cold neutron sources of the FRM-II, HZB and PSI reactors through the McStas software. The aim of our study is investigate a relation between the cutoff in the cold neutron spectrum and the sources. Results for the neutron flux at the sample position are presented for different supermirrors with m = 1, 2 and 3. The vertical S-shaped neutron guides additionally provide a vertical displacement between beam hole and sample position, which can facilitate the implementation and manipulation of sample environments.

    Palavras-Chave: cold neutrons; frm-ii reactor; m codes; monte carlo method; neutron flux; neutron sources; small angle scattering

  • IPEN-DOC 27921

    SUZART, K.F. ; VELO, A.F. ; HAMADA, M.M. ; PEREIRA, M.C.C. ; MESQUITA, C.H. . Characterization of the CsI(Tl) crystalline scintillating detector produced at IPEN. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1586

    Abstract: Cesium iodide crystal activated with thallium (CsI(Tl)) is used as radiation sensor because of its favorable characteristics as scintillator, when excited by gamma radiation. This crystal has good mechanical strength and it is relatively little hygroscopic. In the present work, the CsI(Tl) crystal was grown in the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN/SP) by Brigdman technique, in two different formats: (a) cylindric (∅ 20.1 mm x ↑ 11.9 mm) and (b) parallelepiped (12.3 mm x ↑ 19.5 mm). The scintillator spectrometry was studied through five gamma radiation sources: 99mTc (140 keV), 133Ba (355 keV) 22Na (511 keV) and 137Cs (662 keV). The crystals were coupled to a photomultiplier tube using 0.5 McStokes viscosity silicone grease as the optical interface. All electronics for signal measurements were developed at IPEN. Luminescence property of the CsI(Tl) crystal was excited by the radiation from a 137Cs source. The energy resolution of the crystalline detector was determined by the FWHM parameter, corresponding to the photopeak width at half of its height.

    Palavras-Chave: barium 133; cesium 137; sodium 22; technetium 99; thallium; iodides; crystals; luminescence; radiation detectors

  • IPEN-DOC 27920

    AMADEU, R.A. ; BERNARDES, T.L.S. ; SANTOS, R.S.; GARCIA, R.H.L. ; VELO, A.F. ; CAVALLARO, F.A.; MESQUITA, C.H. ; HAMADA, M.M. . Characterization of the petrology of the tar sandstone rock of the Paraná basin. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-17, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1585

    Abstract: In the state of São Paulo (Brazil), occurrences of tar sandstone are known in Botucatu, Angatuba, Pirambóia, Anhembi and Bofete municipalities. In the present work a sample of white tar sandstone was taken from Anhembi municipality, located at Km 168 of the Castelo Branco Highway. In the petroleum area, sandstones act as excellent hydrocarbon reservoirs, since they have specific characteristics, such as: high porosity and permeability. Porosity is a property of rocks, and it may be understood as the voids contained in the matrix (where fluids remain stored), while permeability is the ability of the rock to transmit these stored fluids. Due to these characteristics of sandstones, researchers have shown a growing interest in the study and characterization of this type of rock, which is a fundamental element of an oil system. In the present work, four characterization techniques were used in the Anhembi tar sandstone sample, namely: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the third generation Industrial Computerized Tomography. Through these techniques, the chemical composition, grain morphology, crystalline structure phases and an image of a slice of the internal structure of the white tar sandstone sample were obtained.

    Palavras-Chave: petrology; sandstones; chemical composition; computerized tomography; crystal structure; tar

  • IPEN-DOC 27919

    SILVA, C.A.J. ; BRAGUIN, L.N.M. ; ROSSI, J.L. ; COSTA, I. ; SAIKI, M. . Determination of chemical elements in magnesium-based materials by neutron activation analysis. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1584

    Abstract: Over the last decades there was an increasing interest in using magnesium alloys for medical applications due to their biodegradability in the human body, providing a temporary mechanical support and corroding completely after the tissue healing. Although magnesium is a non-toxic element, it is of great importance to evaluate the element concentration, as well as the impurities present in both, pure magnesium and magnesium alloys, as the AZ31. The purpose of this study was to analyze the element composition of these materials using the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) acquired from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were analyzed for analytical quality control. Short and long term irradiations were carried out at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and gamma-ray activities induced to the samples and element standard were measured using HPGe detector coupled to a Digital Spectrum Analyzer. The radioisotopes were identified by gamma ray energies and half-life. Concentrations of the elements As, Cr, Cd, Co, Fe, In, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, V, W and Zn were determined in pure magnesium sample and the Al, As, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb and Zn in the AZ31 alloy, calculated by comparative method. The SRMs were analyzed by applying the same experimental conditions used for magnesium-based materials and their results presented good accuracy and precision. Thus, from the measurements obtained in this study it can be concluded that NAA is a suitable method for element determinations in magnesium-based materials providing reliable results.

    Palavras-Chave: biological materials; gamma radiation; high-purity ge detectors; impurities; magnesium alloys; quality control

  • IPEN-DOC 27918

    SÁ, A.P.N. de ; NABESHIMA, E.H.; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. . Effects of ionizing radiation on rheological properties of seasoned cassava bacon flour defatted. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1579

    Abstract: The action of ionizing radiation in food occurs due to interactions of energy that modify chemical structures and is currently seen as a technological alternative in the improvement of the paste food in front of the food industries. Seasoned flour, or "farofa", a typical Brazilian dish, presents its greatest challenge related to oxidative stability, due to its high lipid content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the rheological properties of bacon seasoned cassava flour or bacon "farofa" (BF) and defatted bacon "farofa" (DBF). The samples were obtained at the local market in São Paulo-SP / Brazil, so flour was defatted with hexane and irradiated at the IPEN-CNEN Radiation Technology Center (CTR) in an electron beam machine at doses of 0 (control) and 5 kGy (sanitary purposes), and analyzed for their binding properties using RVA-Rapid Visco Ana-lyzer (viscosity profile) and mass texture (texturometer). The results demonstrated that the application of the irradiation with electron beam to 5KGy has affected the rheological prop-erties of the farofas comparing to the controlled sample, reducing every parameter of viscosity pro-file on the RVA and paste texture.resulting in products easier to chewing during the consumption.

    Palavras-Chave: cassava; flour; food processing; radiation effects; rheology; viscosity

  • IPEN-DOC 27917

    KOIKE, A.C.R. ; ARAUJO, E.S.; NEGRAO, B.G. ; ALMEIDA-MURADIAN, L.B.; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. . Analysis of carotenoids in edible flowers of Dianthus chinensis processed by ionizing radiation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1577

    Abstract: Dianthus chinensis flowers are widely used in culinary preparations and are appreciated because of its bioactive compounds. It is a perishable food that should be grown without the use of pesticides. In this context, food irradiation is a process that has proven to be an efficient tool in preserving and extending the perishable product shelf life without changing the temperature or leaving residues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate carotenoids in D. chinensis flowers submitted to gamma irradiation and electron beam doses of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 kGy. High-performance liquid chromatography for carotenoid determination was used. In the edible flower analyzed was found carotenoid lutein (4.02 to 7.52 mg/ 100 g). The lutein was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.8 and 1.0 kGy in both irradiation technology. In conclusion, the lutein amount in the chinese pink enhances as the dose increases, and the applied irradiation treatments represent a feasible technology to preserve the nutritional quality of edible flower petals as well as attend to food safety requirements.

    Palavras-Chave: carotenoids; cobalt 60; flowers; food processing; gamma radiation; high-performance liquid chromatography

  • IPEN-DOC 27916

    NOGUEIRA, A.G. ; NEGRAO, B.G. ; ARTHUR, V.; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. . Application of ionizing radiation in the "licuri" (Syagrus coronata (Mart.)) as phytosanitary treatment of the Pachymerus nucleorum beetle (Fabricius, 1792). Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-9, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1576

    Abstract: Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius, 1792), is a pest of economic importance it causes direct damages to the “licuri” almonds. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal doses of gamma radiation for stages egg, larvae, and pupae of this insect as a phytosanitary treatment in “licuri”. The samples were irradiated in a Cobalt 60 irradiator, Gammacell-220 type, installed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN / CNEN at a dose rate of 748 Gy / h. Each treatment consisted of 3 replicates, so 180 licuri were irradiated in the doses of 50, 75, 100, and 125 Gy. After irradiation, the samples were stored at a temperature of 25 ± 5°C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The evaluation of the fruits was performed by the emergence of insects. It is concluded that the dose of 125 Gy was sufficient to inhibit the development of insect life stages. Therefore, this dose of radiation can be used for control of the immature stages of the P. nucleorum.

    Palavras-Chave: coconuts; beetles; larvae; pupae; pest control; food processing; cobalt 60; lethal doses; radiation doses

  • IPEN-DOC 27915

    BOIANI, NATHALIA F. ; GARCIA, VANESSA S.G. ; BORRELY, SUELI I. . Electron beam irradiation of combined pharmaceuticals: propranonol and fluoxetine and related ecotoxicity. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1575

    Abstract: There are serious evidences that justify the search for treatment technologies or processes combination for the improvement of decomposition for dozens of pharmaceuticals in wastewaters. Electron beam irradiation may play an important role in this scenario and relatively low doses have been reported for such purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia similis exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals, before and after electron beam irradiation treatment. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test were performed with a mixture of pharmaceuticals composed of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac®), and propranolol. Single pharmaceuticals were first tested separately. Toxicity of binary mixture was then assessed using five concentrations and five percentages of each substance in the mixture (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%). Acute EC50% values ranged from 5.0 to 7.4 for fluoxetine and from 11.3 to 13.7 for propranolol. In mixture, values ranged from 6.4 to 9.8. Fluoxetine was more toxic than propranolol for D.similis. The different pharmaceuticals concentrations employed in a mixture showed no difference in toxicity values. When electron beam irradiation was applied, approximately 80% of acute effects were reduced at 5 kGy, and the mixture containing a higher percentage of fluoxetine, also showed a greater reduction of toxicity.

    Palavras-Chave: ecological concentration; crustaceans; environmental effects; environmental protection; waste water; irradiation; toxicity

  • IPEN-DOC 27914

    OLIVEIRA, J.P. ; SILVA, P.S.C. ; SEMMLER, R. ; DIAS, M.S. ; KOSKINAS, M.F. ; MOREIRA, D.S. ; YAMAZAKI, I.M. . Calibration of the short irradiation facility for k0 - NAA implementation at the IEA-R1 reactor. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1570

    Abstract: The short irradiation facility of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil, has been used for short irradiation of samples for the purpose of determining the concentration of elements of these samples through the use of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. With the aim of determine precisely the reactor parameters α and f, for implementing the k0-NAA method at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN), was used the bare triple method. In this method, a set of three neutron flux monitors were irradiated without Cd-cover. The efficiency curve of the gamma-ray spectrometer used was determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the commonly used counting geometries. The results for the parameters α and f were respectively 0.0384±0.0016 and 35.67±0.26. This value of f shows that the neutrons in the irradiation position are well thermalized. The variation of these parameters was studied with time and the reproducibility was verified.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; gamma spectrometers; high-purity ge detectors; neutron flux

  • IPEN-DOC 27913

    RODRIGUES, E.A. ; AQUINO, A.R. ; CARVALHO, A.R.. Convergence between the study of ecosystem services and nuclear technology: a necessary approach. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1567

    Abstract: If in the 19th century scientific knowledge moved from a generalist perspective to a growing specialization, in recent decades, problems that transcend disciplinary and political boundaries have required solutions based on interdisciplinary research and global actions, which led to the establishment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Viewing from the latter perspective, the study of ecosystem services has converged on a fast-growing, transdisciplinary area of knowledge, at the same time that the advances in the nuclear field have enabled applications in industry, health, agriculture and the environment. Considering the development of these two areas of knowledge, the objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between Ecosystem Services (ES) and Nuclear Science and Technology (NST), by means of category building and content analysis applied to articles compiled from Web of Science. From 1980 to June 2020, 27,301 records (articles and reviews) were listed for the term “Ecosystem Service*”. When refining the result with the application of descriptors related to the nuclear field, correspondences were found for “Uranium”=14; “Nuclear Power”=6; “Nuclear Energy”=3; “Nuclear Technology*”=1; “Nuclear Fuel*”=1; “Nuclear Material*”=1; “Radiation”=7; “Isotope*”=188, totalizing 221 correspondences. On the other hand, 9,949 records were obtained for the same time interval, when using the descriptors for the nuclear field, plus the terms “Nature” or “Ecosystem*” or “Environment”. Despite attesting that NST truly converges on ES, this correlation needs to be made more explicit in ES studies, in order to expand the perspectives for the conservation, preservation and recovery of the ecosystem services and their contribution to human well-being.

    Palavras-Chave: sustainable development; ecology; ecosystems; environment; nuclear energy; technology utilization

  • IPEN-DOC 27911

    PINHEIRO, A.L.L.P.; COELHO, A.L.L.P.; SIMPSON, S.; SOARES, N.A.; SANTOS FILHO, W.P.; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . Clinical-epidemiological profile of women with cervical cancer in the North of the State of Tocantins: 2000 to 2015 period. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-10, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1546

    Abstract: Cervical cancer (CC) is a worldwide public health problem and stands out in the North of the State of Tocantins as the leading cause of the cancer death. It is the fourth most common type cancer in women, with an estimate of 570 thousand new cases and 311 thousand deaths from this disease worldwide in 2018. The lack of effective screening increases the incidence of late diagnosis weighing on the budgets of developing countries, which are the most affected. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiological profile of the woman treated which a diagnosis of cervical cancer in Northern of Tocantins. Materials and methods: It is a descriptive, retrospective, quantitative-interpretive study with analysis of data collected from 2000 to 2015 by the Health Information System of the Hospital Cancer Registry (SIS-RHC) linked to the Regional Hospital of Araguaína (HRA). The data were tabulated in spreadsheets for analysis of the variables evaluated. Results: 2.664 women with cervical cancer treated at the HRA were analyzed during this period. Within the existing stages, the stages 0, I and II were considered “early staging”, and stages III and IV were considered “late staging”. Conclusions: The factors occupation, race, education and smoking were well defined in the incidence of this tumor, especially in the case of late staging. The challenges are many to obtain adequate medical assistance, mainly in the Northern Region of Tocantins and adjacent regions. The knowledge of the epidemiological profile of these women will be important for the development of new health prevention policies, improving the incidence and mortality from this tumor.

    Palavras-Chave: epidemiology; neoplasms; uterus; carcinomas; statistical data; data analysis; women; patients

  • IPEN-DOC 27910

    BEZERRA, ANDRE de S. ; ZEITUNI, CARLOS A. ; ROSTELATO, MARIA E.C.M. . Analysis of patients with prostate cancer care at a reference hospital in the state of Tocantins, suitable for brachytherapy. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1545

    Abstract: Observation and identification of predictive factors for results and morbidity are essential in the ideal selection of patients who can use brachytherapy as a treatment modality for prostate cancer. Thus, the objective of this research is to analyze the population of patients with prostate cancer treated at the General Public Hospital of Palmas in 2015, in the state of Tocantins. The method used was quantitative, with the characteristics of a retrospective, transversal and descriptive analysis. Held in the largest state health unit, the General Public Hospital of Palmas that, despite its large dimensions, lives with the main problems of the Unified Health System, such as overcrowding and shortages. It was found that most of the patients seen corresponded to the age of 70 to 79 years, making 45%, followed by patients aged between 60 and 69 years, with 33%. Most of the individuals attended were from the state of Tocantins, but some lived in an adjacent city in the state of Pará. Data related to the Gleason score showed that there was a predominance of levels 6 and 7 indicating intermediate grade tumors, considering that the most of the observed population was older. It was concluded that the analyzed patients had a predominant staging of CaP II and III, thus most of the individuals, 23 of the 35 analyzed, were not able to undergo brachytherapy due to the high degree of disease staging.

    Palavras-Chave: carcinomas; prostate; patients; health services; brachytherapy; therapeutic uses; statistical data

  • IPEN-DOC 27909

    VIVALDINI, B.F. ; ARAUJO, E.B. . The influence of generator eluate in radiolabeling PSMA-11 kit with 68Ga. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-9, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1541

    Abstract: Gaining prominence in clinical practice, the 68Ga, positron emitter radionuclide easily obtained by 68Ge/68Ga generator elution, has shown potential and excellent quality on radiolabeling of peptide for use in positron emission tomography (PET), in particular urea-based inhibitor peptides, directed to the prostate-specific membrane receptor (PSMA). Previous studies with the PSMA linked to the chelator HBED-CC (PSMA-11) radiolabeled with 68Ga showed high contrast PET/CT images to evaluate recurrence and metastasis of prostate cancer, becoming an important imaging agent in the clinical routine. This work intended to evaluate the influence of the quality of the 68Ge/68Ga generator eluate in direct labelling of PSMA-11 with 68Ga, assisting in the development of kit for prompt radiolabeling. It was evaluated the 68GaCl3 eluate from 68Ge/68Ga non-GMP generator (manufacturer A) and 68Ge/68Ga GMP generator (manufacturer B), both commercially available. To evaluate the influence of the 68Ga eluate on radiochemical yield of the preparations, the radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. The radiolabeling with non-GMP generator eluate was made with and without preliminary purification of the 68 gallium chloride eluate, employing cationic purification columns. The results showed higher radiochemical yield with the 68GaCl3 eluate from the 68Ge/68Ga GMP generator, obtaining the radiolabeled product more easily and speed to clinical practice, without preliminary purification, as opposed to the use of non-GMP 68Ge/68Ga generator which required preliminary purification of the 68GaCl3 eluate to promote satisfactory radiochemical purity results.

    Palavras-Chave: carcinomas; prostate; neoplasms; positron computed tomography; membrane proteins; gallium 68; germanium 68

  • IPEN-DOC 27908

    RIBEIRO JUNIOR, I.S. ; GENEZINI, F.A. ; ZAHN, G.S. . Comparison of two methodologies for spectra analysis in coincidence neutron activation analysis. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1540

    Abstract: The Research Reactor Center (CERPq) of IPEN-CNEN/SP has been developing a facility for Coincidence Neutron Activation Analysis (CNAA), a variation of the Neutron Activation Analysis technique in which gamma-gamma coincidence is used to reduce spectral interferences and improve detection limits of some elements. As the acquisition results in 2D-coincidence spectra, the spectrum analysis has to be dealt with accordingly. There are two distinct ways to perform these analyses, either directly, by fitting bidimensional peaks in the coincidence matrix, or by gating the spectra in one detector around each peak of interest and fitting the resulting 1D-spectrum in the usual way. In this work, the concentrations of As, Co, Cs, Sb and Se were determined in geological and biological reference materials by CNAA using two different methodologies of analysis, using the BIDIM software, which provides 2D-peak-fitting; and a combination of the AnalisaCAEN suite, which gates the 2D-spectra, with Canberra’s Genie2000, which fits the resulting unidimensional spectra. The outcomes allow for a discussion of the advantages and shortcomings of each method, both in terms of usability and of the reliability of the results.

    Palavras-Chave: neutron activation analysis; concentration ratio; geology; comparative evaluations; calibration standards; irradiation; neutron flux; spectra

  • IPEN-DOC 27907

    MACHADO, G.G.; KRUPSKAYA, V.V.; ZAKUSIN, S.V.; HARADA, J.; VICENTE, R. ; SOUZA, R.P.; ARAUJO, L.G. ; MONTALVAN, E.T.; ESPINOSA, D.C.R.; KAHN, H.; GUILHEN, S.N. . Brazilian clays for environmental solutions applied to radioactive waste management. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1539

    Abstract: Clayey materials have been adopted in most nuclear waste producing countries as a key constituent in engineered barrier systems for final disposal facilities at all levels of radioactive wastes (LILW-SL, LILW-LL, and HLW). The following study presents a thorough characterization upon five Brazilian clay-rich deposits, mostly smectite bearing clays, aiming to evaluate their expected performance as barrier under the conditions associated to a Low and Intermediate Level Waste Repository; being the former a matter of national strategic interest. Samples coming from the Brazilian states of Paraná, Bahia, Paraíba, and Maranhão were treated and analyzed by means of X-Ray diffraction as main technique. Other techniques such as FTIR, LALLS, XRF, and SEM-EDS, were performed in order to establish the mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and chemical composition. Moreover, several standard clay treatments over the <1 μm size fraction were carried out to reveal information regarding layer charge, major interlayer cations, unit formula and other crystal features of smectite species present in a mineralogical assembly, aiming to provide information for the construction of a molecular model over which would be realistic to simulate the diffusion of radionuclides. Results obtained on 133Cs adsorption experiments indicate that mineralogical composition would probably be the single most influential factor controlling transport capacity of positively charged radionuclides in the current setup. The composition is especially expressed in terms of smectite contents, favoring montmorillonite rich materials containing majorly Na+ as compensating cation in interlayer position. All tested samples can be considered as suitable candidates to be used in the design of final destination storage for nuclear waste. Thus, efficiency on 133Cs adsorption trials also indicate that these materials could have potential uses as sorptive matrices (Sorbents) for water treatment of radionuclide polluted waters such as TENORM waste waters. However, these trends are yet to be contrasted against hydraulic conductivity measurements and swelling pressure in order to have a more comprehensive perspective of this clayey prospects as barrier enhanced layer; aligned to the multilayer barrier system approach for nuclear waste management.

    Palavras-Chave: radioactive waste storage; fourier transformation; infrared spectra; cesium 133; clays

  • IPEN-DOC 27906

    MARTINS, R. ; VIEIRA, D.P. ; CARVALHO, L.R. ; BARBEZAN, A.B. ; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. . In vivo genotoxicity of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in liver cells from rats fed with irradiated cocoa butter using flow cytometry. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1534

    Abstract: Food irradiation proves to be an effective technique of eliminating some pathogens from food and this has gained significant attention to its potential for food safety. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones have been conducted extensively. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones are unique radiolytic products generated by the radiation-induced breakage of triglycerides in food, 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-dDCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB) are the predominant compounds detected . Despite studies showing non-genotoxicity of 2-ACBs (2-Alkylcyclobutanones), the results are conflicting and therefore we continue the studies in order to confirm the compounds are safety for human health. In vivo micronucleus test were performed to verify the 2-ACBs genotoxic effects in hepatic cells using flow cytometry. We used cocoa butter irradiated with 20 kGy. A group with animals was treated with daily intake of irradiated cocoa butter, synthesized 2-dDCB and 2-tDCB for one month. Hepatic cells were selected for genotoxicity analysis due to the liver importance in the compounds metabolization. The improvement of the analytical techniques is important for the research future since the irradiation process is already consolidated. The results confirmed the safety of the food irradiation process, as they did not indicate the genotoxic potential of the samples.

    Palavras-Chave: alkyl radicals; butter; cell flow systems; cocoa products; food processing; genetic effects; liver cells; mice; radiation doses; radiolysis; toxicity

  • IPEN-DOC 27905

    WAKASUGI, D.S.M. ; DAMATTO, S.R. ; MENEGHINI, A.A. ; SANTOS, L.A.B. ; SALVADOR, V.L.R. . Inorganic chemical composition by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of the mineral waters from the Minas Gerais Water Circuit, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-19, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1528

    Abstract: The water parks located in the cities of Cambuquira, Caxambu, Conceição do Rio Verde, Lambari and Marimbeiro are part of the Water Circuit of Minas Gerais and have their mineral waters regularly consumed by the local population and tourists motivated by the medicinal use of these waters, characterized as mineral waters. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the inorganic chemical composition of the mineral water from these parks, analysing the elements Ag, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K. Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Ti, V and Zn using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence – EDXRF. Despite the proximity to one another, each park has different chemical elements and concentrations. The elements presenting the highest concentrations were the major elements Ca, Fe, K and Mn. However, among the five water parks studied, the Water Park of Caxambu presented the highest concentrations for all the determined elements.

    Palavras-Chave: x-ray fluorescence analysis; inorganic compounds; ecological concentration; elements; recreational areas; water springs; drinking water; composition

  • IPEN-DOC 27904

    SANTOS, R.S. ; CAVALLARO, F.A.; BERNARDES, T.L.S. ; AMADEU, R.A. ; GARCIA, R.H.L. ; VELO, A.F. ; MESQUITA, C.H. ; HAMADA, M.M. . Performance of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the industrial computed tomography used for characterization of the vesicular volcanic rock. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1523

    Abstract: Volcanic rock is a designation in geology given to extrusive igneous rocks. One type of igneous rock of interest, in economic terms, is vesicular, since, besides the knowledge of the morphology (positioning, size, direction, and interconnectivity of the vesicles) of these structures within the spill, there is also an economic interest regarding the possibility of this rock as a reservoir of fluids (water and hydrocarbons). In this work, samples of vesicular volcanic rock from the Paraná Basin were studied for their characterization, aiming to contribute to the knowledge of this rock proprieties as a reservoir of fluids. The elements present inside the rocks were identified and quantified by X ray fluorescence and X ray diffraction. The dimensions of the vesicles and the interconnection between them could be clearly observed in the reconstructed images of the rocks measured by the third generation Gamma ray industrial tomography technique

    Palavras-Chave: chemical composition; computerized tomography; gamma radiation; iridium 192; nai detectors; petrography; powders; reservoir fluids; volcanic rocks; x-ray diffraction; x-ray fluorescence analysis

  • IPEN-DOC 27903

    GERALDO, R.R.; PASCHUK, S.A.; BARRETO, R.C.; CORREA, J.N.; ZAHN, G.S. ; SILVA, P.S.C. da ; SILVA, A.M. da; NARLOCH, D.C.; ARAUJO, I.C.. Application of a semi-empirical model for the evaluation of radium activity in phosphogypsum used as component of clinker. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1518

    Abstract: Phosphogypsum is a residue that has been used by the cement industry as a substitute for the natural gypsum, used as a clinker additive during the production of Portland cement. There is a potential increase in this residue consumption since large amounts of phosphogypsum are generated as outcome of the phosphate fertilizer industries. However, phosphogypsum can be considered a source of radioactive contamination due to the presence of 226Ra in its composition. Depending on the concentration of 226Ra, from the radiological protection point of view, this may cause a problem because this radionuclide and its direct decay product 222Rn along with other decay products, represent the largest fraction of radiation internal dose received by people. In order to evaluate the level of radiological risk that may be associated with the use of phosphogypsum, it is necessary to identify the concentration of 226Ra in building materials. The aim of this research is to analyze samples of phosphogypsum in relation to the concentrations of 226Ra, determined indirectly through 222Rn activity measurements. This measurement process has the advantage of being fast, convenient and relatively inexpensive when compared to traditional methods of 226Ra concentration in samples measurements. The proposed physical-mathematical model was used to establish radium concentration from radon exhalation rate from cement mortar samples. The 222Rn activity measurements were performed with a portable detector with cubic phosphate samples with 50 mm edges each placed in a closed atmosphere of the sampling chamber until secular equilibrium is achieved. Obtained concentrations of radium activity in studied samples of phosphogypsum and cement mortars were found below the limits recommended by CNEN and international regulation.

    Palavras-Chave: building materials; concentration ratio; exhalation; gypsum cements; phosphates; radiation detectors; radiation protection; radioactivity; radium 226; radon 222

  • IPEN-DOC 27902

    KOSKINAS, M.F. ; KUZNETSOVA, M. ; MOREIRA, D.S. ; SHOUERI, R.M. ; YAMAZAKI, I.M. ; MORAIS, T.S.L. ; SEMMLER, R. ; DIAS, M.S. . Preliminary measurements using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) Liquid Scintillator Counter System. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1512

    Abstract: The preliminary measurements using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) Liquid Scintillator Counter System, developed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN, is presented and 14C was selected to be standardized. This solution was previously calibrated by the efficiency tracing technique using a (PC)coincidence system, employing 60Co as a tracer. In order to determine the final activity, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the extrapolation curve. The Software Coincidence System (SCS) developed by the LMN was used for both systems to register the events. MICELLE 2 code was used to calculate the theoretical TDCR efficiency. Measurements using HIDEX, a commercial liquid scintillator system, were also carried out and the results from the three methods were compared, showing a good agreement.

    Palavras-Chave: carbon 14; cobalt 60; comparative evaluations; gamma radiation; liquid scintillators; monte carlo method; photomultipliers; standardization; tracer techniques

  • IPEN-DOC 27901

    ABREU, R.T. ; ANGELOCCI, L.V. ; NOGUEIRA, B.R. ; SANTOS, H.N. ; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . Anisotropy function of a new 192-Ir brachytherapy source. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1506

    Abstract: Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy that uses radioactive sources (seeds, wires, among others) close to the tumor. Is important to provide a detailed description of seed dosimetry, so only the tumor will be irradiated avoiding unnecessary dose on adjacent organs and structures. To evaluate the dosimetric parameter of the anisotropy function for a new brachytherapy source, this work proposes the use of microcube TLD-100 dosimeters to find the dose rate using the AAPM Task Group 43 protocol (TG-43). The anisotropy function represents dose distribution around the source and has a major role for characterization of a new iridium source being implemented in Brazil. The value of D(r,θ) was measured using Solid Water phantoms, r value being the distance from the geometric center of the source to the position of the dosimeter on the phantom, and θ being the angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the source and the line connecting the geometric center to the TLD. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate the anisotropy function to validate the experimental measurements. For each distance value (r), an anisotropy function was plotted (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm). The results obtained with Monte Carlo calculations agreed ±2% with the experimental values for r greater than 3.0 cm, so these results show a good distribution of dose around the seed considering the high energy of 192-Ir (average of 380 KeV) and encapsulation thickness.

    Palavras-Chave: anisotropy; brachytherapy; dose rates; dosimetry; iridium 192; monte carlo method; phantoms; radiation dose distributions; radiation source implants; sealed sources; thermoluminescent dosemeters

  • IPEN-DOC 27900

    SOUZA, A.P.S. ; OLIVEIRA, L.P. de ; YOKAICHIYA, F.; GENEZINI, F.A. ; FRANCO, M.K.K.D. . A diffractometer project for Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB): McStas simulations and instrument optimization. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-17, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1499

    Abstract: The high-resolution diffractometer is one of the first instruments of the set of 15 priority neutron scattering instruments to be installed at the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). A basic project of this instrument consists of the existence of three guides through which neutrons pass from source to sample to guarantee maximum neutron flux at the sample position. In this study, we investigate guide geometry performance considering fixed diffractometer geometry and spatial arrangement. Comparisons between different guide shapes and supermirrors are performed using software based on the Monte Carlo method, McStas. Our conclusion shows that a better solution is splitting the initial flux into two different guides to obtain the maximum flux at the sample position.

    Palavras-Chave: computer codes; computerized simulation; configuration; diffractometers; monte carlo method; neutron flux; neutron guides; neutron sources; optimization; rmb reactor

  • IPEN-DOC 27899

    ALENCAR, C.S.L. ; PAIVA, A.R.N. ; SILVA, L.G.A. ; SOMESSARI, E.S.R. ; VAZ, J.M. ; SPINACE, E.V. . AuCu/TiO2 catalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich mixtures. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1497

    Abstract: The major part of the world production of hydrogen (H2) is originated from a combination of methane steam reforming and water gas shift reaction resulting in an H2 rich mixture known as reformate gas, which contains about 1% vol (10,000 ppm) of carbon monoxide (CO). The preferential oxidation reaction of CO in H2 rich mixtures (CO PROX) has been considered a very promising process for H2 purification, reducing CO for values below 50 ppm allowing its use in PEMFC Fuel Cells. Au nanoparticles supported on TiO2 (Au/TiO2) catalysts have been shown good activity and selectivity for CO PROX reaction in the temperature range between 20 80 ºC; however, the catalytic activity strongly depends on the preparation method. Also, the addition of Cu to the Au/TiO2 catalyst could increase the activity and selectivity for CO PROX reaction. In this work, AuCu/TiO2 catalysts with composition 0.5%Au0.5%Cu/TiO2 were prepared in a single step using electron beam irradiation, where the Au3+ and Cu2+ ions were dissolved in water/2 propanol solution, the TiO2 support was dispersed and the obtained mixture was irradiated under stirring at room temperature using different dose rates (8 64 kGy s 1) and total doses (144 576 kGy). The catalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray analysis, X ray diffraction transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed reduction and tested for CO PROX reaction. The best result was obtained with a catalyst prepared with a dose rate of 64 kGy s 1 and a total dose of 576 kGy showed a CO conversion of 45% and a CO2 selectivity of 30% at 150 ºC.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; carbon monoxide; catalysts; copper; dose rates; electron beams; gold; hydrogen; irradiation; mixtures; nanoparticles; oxidation; titanium oxides

  • IPEN-DOC 27898

    CORREA, J.C. ; CAVALLARO, F.A.; GARCIA, R.H.L. ; SANTOS, R.S.; AMADEU, R.A. ; BERNARDES, T.L.C. ; VELO, A.F. ; MESQUITA, C.H. ; HAMADA, M.M. . Chemical and physical analysis of sandstone rock from Botucatu Formation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-19, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1479

    Abstract: The productive capacity of the Guarani aquifer System is subject to variations along its length, due to its complex structural and compositional heterogeneity. Several parameters may influence the quality of this reservoir rock, such as its mineralogical and textural constitution, as well as the physicochemical processes, since its diagenesis is not the same throughout the aquifer, influencing the water productivity in wells in different locations. Such parameters are useful in the geoscience studies for the elaboration of diagenetic models for the prediction of the reservoir quality. In this work, several properties of the sandstone rock from Botucatu Formation were determined using different techniques, such as geotechnical tests, optical microscopy (MO), electron scanning microscopy (SEM), X-ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the studied sandstones have characteristics of the reservoir rocks, with potential for water storage.

    Palavras-Chave: aquifers; chemical analysis; optical microscopy; physical properties; plasticity; reservoir rock; sandstones; shear; velocity

  • IPEN-DOC 27897

    PEREIRA, M.C.C. ; FILHO, T.M. ; TOMAZ, L.F. ; BERRETTA, J.R. . Growth and optical characteristics of the CsI:Li scintillator crystal for use as radiation detector. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1478

    Abstract: Materials capable of converting ionizing radiation into light photons are called scintillators, some have specific efficiencies for certain applications and types of radiation, e.g. gamma, X-ray, alpha, beta and neutrons. CsI:Tl and NaI:Tl crystals are commonly found in the market because they have several applications, but few studies have been done on lithium doped cesium iodide crystal (CsI:Li). The lithium element, in this crystal used as a dopant, is also exploited as a converter for neutron detection, as it has a shock section of 940 barns for thermal neutrons. The study of the CsI:Li crystal is convenient considering the natural abundance of the lithium element with 7.5%, besides the interest in having a low cost national scintillator material, with an opportunity to search for the response of a detector for different types of radiation. The CsI:Li crystal was grown with molar concentration 10-4 to 10-1, using the vertical Bridgman technique. The parameters involved in the growth process were investigated. The transmittance was evaluated in the spectral region from 190 nm to 1100 nm. Luminescence emission spectra for the CsI:Li crystal were evaluated by photometric analysis of the crystal stimulated with a 137Cs (662 keV) source in front of the coupled sample at the monochromator input. The crystals showed maximum luminescence intensity at the wavelength of 420 nm. It was evaluated the response of the scintillators, when excited with gamma radiation of 241Am, 133Ba, 22Na, 137Cs, 60Co and neutron radiation from the AmBe source, with energy range of 1 MeV to 12 Mev.

    Palavras-Chave: cesium 137; cesium iodides; crystal growth; doped materials; emission spectra; energy range; gamma radiation; lithium; neutron detection; optical properties; phosphors; photometry; radiation detectors

  • IPEN-DOC 27896

    SILVA, TATIANE B. de S.C. da ; OLIVEIRA, CINTIA C. de ; MARQUES, JOYCE R. ; FAUSTINO, MAINARA G. ; STELLATO, THAMIRIS B. ; MONTEIRO, LUCILENA R. ; PIRES, MARIA A.F. ; COTRIM, MARYCEL E.B. . Estimated pollutant load from Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1468

    Abstract: The quantification of the pollutant load received by a water body is one necessary step to keep its original standards, irrespective of the releasing source. Thus, to monitor and control the content of pollutants released in a water body assures the water will remain free from excessive pollution. Also, no harm to human health and the environment will occur. Hence, this paper aims to estimate the pollutant load of sanitary wastewater released by the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN / CNEN-SP) in 2015 and 2016. The analysis of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, Fe, B, and Sn was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). These metals and the total fixed solids were used to estimate the pollutant load. Wastewater flow measurement was carried out using bromide (Br-) as a tracer and with the values from IPEN`s annual water consumption. Since 2006, this is performed as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q), in compliance with the current Brazilian Environmental Legislation and with the Term of Conduct Adjustment requirements, agreed with the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). Even the pollutants load has increased in 2015 and 2016, the monitoring frequency and water consumption have diminished in the last years. These facts increase the uncertainties in the monitoring and could lead to non-compliances with the monitoring laws.

    Palavras-Chave: absorption spectroscopy; bromides; chemical analysis; flow rate; metals; monitoring; pollutants; semimetals; solids; waste water

  • IPEN-DOC 27895

    BERNARDES, T.L.S. ; AMADEU, R.A. ; SANTOS, R.S.; GARCIA, R.H.L. ; VELO, A.F. ; CAVALLARO, F.A.; MESQUITA, C.H. ; HAMADA, M.M. . Petrological study of the Iraty Formation Shale Rocks from Paraná Basin, Limeira, São Paulo. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-17, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1467

    Abstract: Shales are fine-grained rocks formed by clays and silt-sized particles in thin, relatively impermeable layers. They are originated from rocks that suffered weathering and erosion and their composition is quite variable. When oil production declines, interest arises to improve the understanding of the physicochemical properties of unconventional rocks, like shale. For the characterization of the shale samples of the Iraty Formation, the gamma-ray computed industrial tomography technique has been proposed to be used as an alternative to obtaining information about each element present in the mineral, the pore distribution, through the shale morphology. The tomographic results were compared with those obtained by conventional methodologies used in the petrological analysis, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray fluorescence, and x-ray diffraction.

    Palavras-Chave: comparative evaluations; computerized tomography; gamma radiation; industrial radiography; morphology; nai detectors; petrology; reservoir rock; shales

  • IPEN-DOC 27894

    LIMA, L.M.P.R.; KODAMA, Y. ; OTUBO, L. ; SANTOS, P.S. ; VASQUEZ, P.A. . Effect of ionizing radiation on the color of botanical collections - exsiccata. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1462

    Abstract: Conservation and preservation strategies are essential to manage botanical collections specially for dried herbarium specimens also known as exsiccates, usually referring to a set of identified specimens belonging to taxa and distributed among all herbaria around the world. Particularly, these collections are very sensitive to the attack of fungi and insects. In recent years, disinfection by ionizing radiation has become an effective strategy to preserve cultural heritage objects and archived materials with excellent results. In this work, the effects on color properties of gamma radiation on exsiccates samples were studied. Thus, two exsiccates, botanical pressed and dehydrated samples were selected from the Dom Bento José Pickel Herbarium (SPSF), situated at São Paulo (Brazil). These samples comes from Asteraceae and Solanaceae families and were collected in 1946 and 1984. The irradiation was performed at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN applying absorbed doses of 1 kGy, 6 kGy and 10 kGy, which are values of absorbed dose for disinfestation and disinfection. Results were analyzed using colorimetry with CIELAB color space scale and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there were no significant changes on colorimetric morphological properties of the samples.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; absorption spectroscopy; botany; cobalt 60; disinfestation; fungi; gamma radiation; morphology; pest control; radiation dose units

  • IPEN-DOC 27893

    SILVA, T.T. ; BORRELY, S.I. . Use of ionizing radiation for the inhibition and removal of cyanotoxins in water: a brief review. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1457

    Abstract: Cyanobacteria are an ancient and diverse group of microorganisms, considered as important contributors to the formation of Earth's atmosphere and nitrogen fixation. However, the input of nutrients in water by anthropogenic activities frequently provides cyanobacteria blooms associated with toxic compounds. Secondary metabolites, also called cyanotoxins, are often harmful to wild and domestic life, including humans. The first part of this review focuses on cyanobacteria and their ability to produce a variety of toxins as well as describe the Brazilian guidelines on the evaluation and management of these toxins in water quality. Then, we present a review of recent literature on the use of ionizing radiation in terms of cyanobacteria cell removal, degree of degradation of cyanotoxins in water, and reaction kinetics. In view of the exposed results, the paper concludes that ionizing radiation is an efficient and economically viable alternative for the remediation of areas contaminated by cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins, especially in reservoirs intended for water treatment and supply. In addition, some suggestions are provided for further studies on the use of this technology in the treatment of drinking water.

    Palavras-Chave: comparative evaluations; cyanobacteria; drinking water; electron beams; gamma radiation; inhibition; radiation doses; removal; toxins; water treatment

  • IPEN-DOC 27892

    GONÇALVES, P.N. ; DAMATTO, S.R. ; LEONARDO, L. ; SOUZA, J.M. . Natural radionuclides in soil profiles and sediment cores from Jundiaí reservoir, state of São Paulo. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1453

    Abstract: The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soils and sediments is dependent on many factors, such as the rock parental material, pedogenic and weathering processes, physical and chemical properties of the environment, anthropogenic sources, among other aspects. There are few studies about the levels of natural radionuclides in reservoirs in both, international and national, literature. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K by gamma spectrometry in two soil profiles and three sediment cores collected in the catchment area of Jundiai reservoir, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Principal component analysis was applied to verify the correlation of the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides with physical and chemical properties of soil and sediment samples. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the soil profiles 1 and 2 were, respectively: 238U – 37(1) and 32(1); 232Th – 91(1) and 60(1); 226Ra – 66(1) and 51(1); 210Pb – 35(1) and 37(1); 228Ra – 34(1) and 27(1); 228Th – 78(1) and 58(1); 40K – 96(2) and 171(7) For the three sediment cores analyzed, the average activities concentrations of the radionuclides were, respectively: 238U – 64(0.5), 47(0.1) and 44(0.2); 232Th – 122(2), 100(1) and 64(1); 226Ra – 74(2), 71(1) and 45(1); 210Pb – 70(3), 56(2) and 55(2); 228Ra – 53(1), 41(1) and 33(1); 228Th – 100(2), 92(1) and 63(2); 40K – 316(5), 237(1) and 136(2)

    Palavras-Chave: activity levels; chemical properties; gamma spectroscopy; natural radioactivity; neutron activation analysis; physical properties; radioecological concentration; sediments; soils; water reservoirs

  • IPEN-DOC 27891

    FRANCO, J.G. ; SILVA, R.M.G. da; SUGUIMOTO, R.Y.; FRANCO, S.S.H.; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H.; ARTHUR, V. . Glycine max oil physical-chemical quality obtained of irradiated seeds. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1450

    Abstract: Ionizing radiation applied to agriculture has mainly benefited food production, as it reduces natural losses caused by physiological processes, as well as eliminating or reducing microorganisms, parasites and pests. In addition, this technique also allows the production of mutants with characteristics of greater productivity, precocity, smaller size, greater resistance to diseases and pests. These mutants are used to obtain new varieties of species of agronomic interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physic-chemical quality of the oil extracted from seeds of G. max (soybean) obtained from irradiated seeds with different doses of gamma radiation (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy of a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 installed in CENA-USP). The physic-chemical analyzes included: AOCS Cd-3d-63, AOCS Cd-3-25 and AOCS Cd-1-25, Acids Index (I.A.), Saponification Index (I.S.), Iodide Index (I.I.), respectively. All analytical determinations were performed at least in triplicates. The values found for I.A., for I.S. and for I.I., did not differ from the oil sample obtained from soybean seeds from control subjects (without irradiation) regardless of the concentration and dose of radiation applied to the seeds. The oil analyzed did not show physical-chemical variation in comparison with the oil obtained from non-irradiated seeds, thus suggesting the absence of modifications in these parameters after the genetic improvement induced by the radiation.

    Palavras-Chave: agriculture; cobalt 60; gamma radiation; glycine; irradiation; physical chemistry; radiation dose units; radiation doses; radiation effects; seeds; soybeans; toxicity

  • IPEN-DOC 27890

    FRANCO, S.S.H.; FRANCO, J.G. ; FERRARI, L.; LEANDRO, R.S.R. ; ARTHUR, P.B. ; ARTHUR, V. . Propagation of mango seedlings of the cultivar "Tommy" by grafts irradiated. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1449

    Abstract: Due to difficulties of vegetative propagating of any pants, many tests were performed with ionizing radiation aiming the modification of the characteristics of the plants for obtaining of the improved genotypes and of smaller size. Rootstock “Espada” cultivar, were used to obtain mango seedlings of “Tommy” cultivar. The cuttings were irradiated with different gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 Gy, a dose rate of 0.323 kGy/h, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, installed in the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, CENA-USP. After irradiation, was performed the grafting type cleft graft. It was made the first evaluation of height of the plants from the budding grafting after 24 months. Data were subjected by statistic program (SAS) and the means were compared by Tukey test (p <0.05). From the results obtained can be concluded that the doses of 2.5 Gy stimulated growth of the plants and the lethal dose was 10.0 Gy because don’t have development of plants.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; gamma radiation; grafts; irradiation; lethal doses; mangoes; radiation dose units; radiation doses; seedlings

  • IPEN-DOC 27889

    ARTHUR, P.B. ; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. ; HARDER, M.N.C. ; MACHI, A.R. ; LEANDRO, R.S.R. ; ARTHUR, V. . Sterilizing of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) irradiated in pupa stage. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-7, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1445

    Abstract: The use of irradiation process in stored grain may be the solution for the losses caused in these products by insects, as it does not induce resistance in the insects and leaves no toxic residue, and is considered an efficient and safe method of control of insects. The aim of the experiment was to determine the sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation from cobalt-60 to Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in peanuts irradiated in pupa stage. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA / USP., Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Peanuts samples infested with pupae of A. diaperinus were utilized in the experiment that consisted of 8 treatments with 5 repetitions. Each repetition consisted of 20 pupae a total of 100 individuals per treatment. Were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 Gy, in a source of cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, with a rate dose of 381Gy / h. The experiment was conducted in a controlled temperature of 25 ± 5 ° C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. After of irradiation process was evaluated of the number of emerged adult insects in each repetition in the treatments. The results showed that the sterilizing dose in F1 generation was 125 Gy and the pupa lethal dose 150 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy of gamma radiation can be used as phytosanitary treatment to control of immature stages of A. diaperinus infested peanuts.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; coleoptera; dose rates; gamma radiation; irradiation; lethal doses; peanuts; pupae; radiation dose units; radiation doses; sterilization

  • IPEN-DOC 27888

    ARTHUR, P.B. ; MACHI, A.R. ; LEANDRO, R.S.R. ; HARDER, L.N.C. ; HARDER, M.N.C.; ARTHUR, V. . Disinfestation of mangoes haden infested by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera, Tephritidae) with gamma radiation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1444

    Abstract: The objective of experiment was determinate the radiation dose for disinfestation to mango Mangifera indica cv. Haden, infested by Anastrepha fraterculus larvae. For realization of the experiment, were collected fruits in the field, which were taking to Entomology laboratory where there was an infestation by the flies in cages during 72 hours period. Waited for the development of the larvae 5 and 8 days to infestation, after the mangos were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source with doses of: 0(control), 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1.100, 1.200 and 1.300 Gy. After the irradiation, the fruits were placed in climate chamber with 25 ±5°C of temperature and 70±5% of relative humidity. Waited the larvae exit to out of the fruit until the transformation in pupae and adult stage. By the results obtained we can concluded that the lethal dose to larvae in mangoes infested with 5 and 8 days were 600 Gy and 1.000 Gy (0.6 and 1 kGy) respectively. The dose of 50 Gy prevented the total adult emergence for both treatments.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; disinfestation; flies; gamma 10 devices; larvae; mangoes; pest control; radiation doses

  • IPEN-DOC 27887

    PRIMO, C.O. ; ANGELOCCI, L.V. ; KARAM JUNIOR, D.; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . Dose-rate constant and air-kerma strength evaluation of a new 125I brachytherapy source using Monte-Carlo. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1441

    Abstract: Brachytherapy is a modality of radiotherapy which treats tumors using ionizing radiation with sources located close to the tumor. The sources can be produced from several radionuclides in various formats, such as Iodine-125 seeds and Iridium-192 wires. In order to produce a new Iodine-125 seed in IPEN/CNEN and ensure its quality, it is essential to describe the seed dosimetry, so when applied in a treatment the lowest possible dose to neighboring healthy tissues can be reached. The report by the AAPM’s Task Group 43 U1 is a document that indicates the dosimetry procedures in brachytherapy based on physical and geometrical parameters. In this study, dose-rate constant and air-kerma strength parameters were simulated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4C. The air-kerma strength is obtained from an ideal modeled seed, since its actual value should be measured for seeds individually in a specialized lab with a Wide-Angle Free-Air Chamber (WAFAC). Dose-rate constant and air-kerma strength are parameters that depends on intrinsic characteristics of the source, i.e. geometry, radionuclide, encapsulation, and together they define the dose-rate to the reference point. Radial dose function describes the dose fall-off with distance from the source. This study presents the values found for these parameters with associated statistical uncertainty, and is part of a larger project that aims the full dosimetry of this new seed model, including experimental measures.

    Palavras-Chave: brachytherapy; computerized simulation; dose rates; dosimetry; iodine 125; kerma; monte carlo method

  • IPEN-DOC 27886

    ALBANO, A.M.S. ; ARTHUR, V. . Application of gamma radiation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) in nature to inhibit sprouting and increase shelf life. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-20, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1439

    Abstract: The irradiation of fresh post-harvest foods has as main interests: inhibit sprouting, increase shelf life, reduce or delay damage caused by insects and diseases. This work is a preliminary study on the use of gamma radiation in fresh peas grains (Pisum sativum L.) in order to evaluate its effects on the inhibition of sprout and its increase in shelf life. The peas were submitted at irradiation process with four radiation doses: 0 (control), 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 kGy, in a 60Co research irradiator, with a dose rate of 0.323 kGy/h. After irradiation the samples were stored at 8 °C, being evaluated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days by analyzes of: visual aspect, weight loss, color, hardness, pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, ratio SST/TTA, water content and ash. By the results it was observed that in all parameters analyzes with gamma radiation doses used did not affect significantly in the shelf life of grains. The 0.30 kGy dose increased the germination of the peas and the 0.45 kGy dose was not sufficient to inhibit the sprouting of the peas.

    Palavras-Chave: chemical analysis; cobalt 60; food processing; gamma radiation; peas; radiation dose units; radiation effects; sprout inhibition; storage life

  • IPEN-DOC 27885

    COSTA, A.F.; MUNITA, C.S. ; ZUSE, S.; KIPNIS, R.. Archaeometry and Archaeology: preliminary studies of the ceramics from archaeological sites of the upper Madeira river/Rondônia - Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1424

    Abstract: In southwest Amazonia, in the region of the Upper Madeira River, Rondônia, archaeological research has shown that communities with diverse cultures co-existed in the pre-colonial past (ca. 1,000 BP). Archaeological sites from this period located on river banks and islands consist of large extensions of ceramic deposits which reflect different daily activities and social positions that existed within these groups. The complexity of these societies is attested to by the diversity of both ceramic forms and iconography. In this work, 140 ceramic fragments from eight archaeological sites were studied by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine Na, K, La, Sm, Yb, Lu, U, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta and Th mass fractions, with the purpose of classifying and ordering artifacts which are related to one another in their chemical compositions. The analytical method used is adequate for this type of study because it is a semi-destructive technique with high sensitivity and precision that can determine chemical elements in trace and ultra-trace levels, essential for studying small variations in elemental concentrations. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the dataset. Initially the mass fractions were normalized to compensate for the large difference in magnitude among elements determined in percentage and in trace level. Subsequently, the mass fraction data were interpreted through cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and a log-log scatterplot. The results showed the existence of four compositional groups, indicating different clay sources.

    Palavras-Chave: archaeology, ceramics; chemical composition; clays; cluster analysis; elements; gamma spectra; multivariate analysis; neutron activation analysis; rivers; scatterplots

  • IPEN-DOC 27884

    TESSARO, A.P.G. ; VICENTE, R. ; MARUMO, J.T. ; TEIXEIRA, A.C.S.C.; ARAUJO, L.G. . Preliminary studies on electron beam irradiation as a treatment method of radioactive oil sludge. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1416

    Abstract: Radiation-induced advanced oxidation processes have been proposed for the treatment of various types of wastes. However, electron beam technologies for the removal of recalcitrant compounds in petroleum wastes are still poorly understood. This work aims at evaluating the effects on the degradation of organic matter from oil sludge by electron beam irradiation. Characterization methods were employed to identify the chemical elements present in the waste. Radiometric analysis was performed to identify radionuclides and measure dose rates. Preliminary immobilization of the untreated waste with cement indicated resistance values very close to the minimum established in national regulation. To treat the waste, an electron beam accelerator, model Dynamitron II, with variable current up to 25 mA was employed and the irradiation doses ranged from 20 to 200 kGy. Solutions were prepared with an initial H2O2 concentration of 1.34 mol·L-1. The effects on the removal of total organic carbon are discussed.

    Palavras-Chave: dose rates; electron beams; irradiation; oils; radiation dose ranges; radioactive waste processing; radioactive wastes; radioisotopes; radiometric analysis; sludges

  • IPEN-DOC 27883

    MELO, G.R.; ZAHN, G.S. ; GENEZINI, F.A. ; MOREIRA, E.G. . Development of an environmental monitoring station for HPGe detectors. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1412

    Abstract: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is a well-established nondestructive analytic technique where the gamma radiation emitted by an irradiated sample is analyzed using an HPGe detector. The Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) of IPEN-CNEN/SP has been performing NAA analyses for over 30 years, and has plans of implementing quality control protocols to their analyses. In this sense, the environmental monitoring of the laboratories where the detectors are used has been performed for many years, in a manual way with no more than 2 measurements per day. In this work, an automated monitoring station based on a microcontroller ArduinoUNO board has been developed which comprises four thermo hygrometer sensors for monitoring different parts of the environment, plus a thermocouple for monitoring the inside of the liquid nitrogen dewar. The results obtained allow for a discussion on the performance and adequacy of the sensors.

    Palavras-Chave: automation; environment; high-purity ge detectors; monitoring; neutron activation analysis; performance; sensors; thermocouples; uses

  • IPEN-DOC 27882

    ZAHN, G.S. ; GENEZINI, F.A. ; SILVA, P.S.C. ; NORY, R.M. ; MOREIRA, E.G. ; SANTIAGO, P.S. . On the feasibility of producing Lu-177 in the IEA-R1 reactor via the direct route. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1411

    Abstract: Over the last years the 177Lu radioisotope has attracted great interest for the use in therapeutic and diagnostic procedures simultaneously, being what is now called a theranostic radioisotope, with outstanding results in prostate and neuroendocrine cancer. There are mainly two ways of producing this radioisotope, by direct neutron capture in a 176Lu target (the “direct route") or by irradiating a 176Yb sample, producing 177Yb that will then decay to 177Lu (also referred as the “indirect route”). In this work, the technical feasibility of producing 177Lu in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor via the direct route was assessed, and the specific activity that could be obtained was estimated both experimentally and theoretically.

    Palavras-Chave: capture; cross sections; feasibility studies; iear-1 reactor; isotope production; lutetium 176 target; lutetium 177; neutron reactions

  • IPEN-DOC 27881

    ZAHN, G.S. ; GENEZINI, F.A. . Efficiency stability of HPGe detectors under distinct count rates. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1410

    Abstract: In this work the reproducibility of the efficiency of different HPGe detectors was analyzed under a series of different conditions. The detectors studied were plugged either to a regular analogical amplifier or to a digital signal processing (DSP) device, to evaluate the possible differences between either setup. Detectors were inspected by performing a long series of sequential measurements with standard calibration sources and comparing the standard deviation of the number of counts per second in each series to the uncertainty of the individual measurements. Detectors were also subjected to distinct count rates, to verify the possible experimental issues associated with this parameter. The results allow a discussion on the stability of the detectors’ efficiencies over a few days, the possible dependence with the count rate, and the estimation of the uncertainty related to the efficiency variation.

    Palavras-Chave: calibration standards; comparative evaluations; counting ratemeters; data covariances; efficiency; high-purity ge detectors; stability

  • IPEN-DOC 27880

    ENOKIHARA, C.T. ; SCHULTZ-GUTTLER, R.A.; RELA, P.R. . Comparative analysis of quartz treated with gamma radiation originated from the hydrothermal geodes of the Paraná Basin, with quartz generated in the hydrothermal veins of Serra do Espinhaço. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1393

    Abstract: In Brazil, hydrothermal quartz may be found in the geodes of the basaltic rocks of the Paraná Basin and in the vein systems of quartzites of the Serra do Espinhaço. The quartz of hydrothermal origin of the Paraná Basin contains a great amount of structurally bound water in the form of molecular water, silanol, hydroxyl and abundant growth defects that are responsible for the green color formed by irradiation. To register the influence of water in the formation of the green color in the quartz of the Paraná Basin, quartz samples from the following regions were analyzed: Artigas, located in the Paraná Basin, Curvelo and Brejinho located in Serra do Espinhaço. The quartz from Artigas, formed at low temperature, has high concentration of molecular water and silanol and a greater amount of Fe than Al. The quartz from Curvelo with Al, but, without water molecular and silanol was formed by intermediate temperature and the quartz from Brejinho has very little Al, Fe and a small silanol and molecular water content. To characterize these samples, ICP, NAA, and NIR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements have been taken together with water loss techniques. The analysis by FTIR spectrometry of Artigas quartz samples shows strong absorptions of H2O and Si-OH, respectively, near the regions of 5300 cm-1 and 4500 cm-1. This content of molecular water and silanol in hydrothermal quartz of Artigas is responsible for the formation of NBOHC defects that produce, by gamma radiation, the green color.

    Palavras-Chave: chemical analysis; cobalt 60; comparative evaluations; defects; fourier transformation; gamma radiation; icp mass spectroscopy; infrared spectra; irradiation; quartz; water

  • IPEN-DOC 27879

    ISHIMARU, G. ; SANTOS, E.C. ; SAIKI, M. . Evaluation of the spatial variability of the elements in tree barks used as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1386

    Abstract: Tree barks have proven to be a valuable source of information on air quality. Nowadays, studies with this biomonitor are constantly being developed. However, data of several factors that affect the accumulation of the pollutants in the barks, such as bark porosity, duration of the deposition on the bark and dispersion or variability of pollutants in a defined area, are scarce in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of chemical elements concentrations accumulated on Sibipiruna (Cenostigna pluviosarum) barks in order to examine their aerial dispersion in two small urban areas of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied in the analyses consisted of irradiation the aliquots of the sample together the synthetic element standards at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Concentrations of the As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, V and Zn were determined in tree barks using short and long irradiations. Results obtained in the analyses of the tree bark samples indicated that the variability of element concentrations depends on the element, study area and numbers of trees. The variability of element concentrations in general was higher for elements presenting low concentrations. Quality control of the analytical results was evaluated by the analysis of INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs Certified Reference Material and these results presented good accuracy with values of standardized difference or |ζ score| ≤ 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses.

    Palavras-Chave: air pollution monitoring; bark; biological markers; concentration ratio; ecological concentration; elements; neutron activation analysis; trees

  • IPEN-DOC 27878

    TORRECILHA, J.K. ; MARRICHI, J.M.O.; SOUZA, E.A.P.; GOUVEA, P.F.M. ; ALVES, I.C. ; SANTOS, A. ; SILVA, P.S.C. . Radiological characterization of peloids obtained by maturation with Águas de Lindóia, Poços de Caldas and Peruíbe waters. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1385

    Abstract: One of the concerns about using mineral clay for therapy treatments is its radioactivity content due to natural radionuclides, normally, associated with the clays. This work proposes to characterize the natural radionuclides of the peloids obtained by the maturation process of mixing two different clays (gray and green) with different mineral medicinal waters from Águas de Lindóia (SP), Poços de Caldas (MG) and sea water from Peruíbe (SP). The gamma spectrometry showed that the gray and green bentonite peloids, all the activity concentrations of radionuclides are higher in gray ones, except 40K. The activity concentration varied from 84 to 156 Bq kg−1 (228Ra), 25 to 156 Bq kg−1 (228Th), 9 to 161 Bq kg−1 (226Ra), 39 to 256 Bq kg−1 (210Pb) and 162 to 1070 Bq kg−1 (40K). However, by calculating the absorbed dose rate in the worst scenario, this may not be a problem for topical application. Although the waters from Águas de Lindóia and Poços de Caldas are considered radioactive they have not caused a significant increase in radionuclide concentrations absorbed dose rate.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; bentonite; concentration ratio; dose rates; gamma spectroscopy; montmorillonite; natural radioactivity; radioecological concentration; thermal springs

  • IPEN-DOC 27877

    FERREIRA, D.C.; DEL MASTRO, N.L. . An analysis of the support and quality of live after the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the radiotherapy sector. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1384

    Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common chronic disease among men in most parts of the world. According to the National Cancer Institute (INCA) in Brazil in 2018, 68,000 new cases were registered. Among the main treatments the radiotherapy has been shown to be effective in controlling and curing the disease. However, it is noted that the patient satisfaction index is not the most encouraging and there is little research that points to the support of the hospital team. The aim of this study was to collect data from medical records about the adverse effect of the disease and through questionnaire the level of knowledge about the disease and the support offered by sector and to make recommendations for radiotherapy units Data were collected from 147 patients and of that total, 51 answered the questionnaire. The survey also shows that there was little referral to the complementary therapeutic service during of treatment. It is identified that more than 50% them knew very little about prostate cancer and 42% had no participation in the choice of treatment. It is observed that it is difficult to insert support policies for patients with prostate cancer, the professionals who work in oncology and radiotherapy centers underestimate the effects of the disease. It is observed, through research, that many of the symptoms and debilitations could be mitigated if there was a greater interaction between the health team and the patient, reducing the effects of radiation and accelerating the patient's integration for the social environment.

    Palavras-Chave: neoplasms; patients; prostate; quality of life; radiation effects; radiotherapy; recommendations

  • IPEN-DOC 27876

    HARDER, M.N.C. ; ANDRADE, T.; REIS, F.M.; FEITOSA, N.M.; PEREIRA, P.; ROBERTO, S.P.; NEME-OYAN, F.F.; HARDER, L.N.C.; OLIVEIRA, S.R. ; ARTHUR, V. . Shelf-life of papaya nectar submitted to ionizing radiation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-9, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1374

    Abstract: A kind of drink consumption that has grown and appreciated for the most people is the nectar. The papaya nectar was recognized as a differentiated form of this fruit, with which the industry also gains in time of conservation, since the papaya is an extremely perishable fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation as a way of conserving papaya nectar. The nectar was developed and subjected to gamma radiation at the dose of 1 kGy in a dose tax of 0.356 kGy.hour-1 and compared this treatment with the control group (0 kGy). According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that the dose used was adequate for the conservation of this product for the period evaluated reaching the aim.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; coliforms; food processing; fungi; gamma radiation; irradiation; papayas; radiation doses; storage life; yeasts

  • IPEN-DOC 27875

    HARDER, M.N.C. ; BREVIGLIERI, E.; OLIVEIRA, B.B.; ZAMBONI, K.; CARVALHO, S.; NEME-OYAN, F.F.; HARDER, L.N.C.; OLIVEIRA, S.R. ; ARTHUR, V. . Apple porridge submitted to gamma radiation for shelf-life extended. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1372

    Abstract: Among many apple products, apple porridge is a popular product nowadays. It is a practical, healthy and tasty product that can be consumed throughout the day. However, it is an extremely perishable product. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the shelf-life period of apple porridge after the application of gamma radiation as a conservation technology. After the formulation of apple porridge was developed, which was subjected to gamma radiation at the dose of 1kGy in a dose tax of 0.356 kGy.hour-1 and compared this treatment with the control group (0kGy). From the results presented, it can be concluded that the conservation period of apple porridge submitted to gamma radiation is 60 days. From the 90th day, the samples showed microbial growth, becoming not accepted for consumption. In comparison to the control group, the use of gamma radiation was promising, since the standard sample showed contamination before 30 days. By the results it can be concluded that the dose used was adequate for the conservation of this product for the period evaluated.

    Palavras-Chave: apples; cobalt 60; coliforms; food processing; fungi; gamma radiation; irradiation; ph value; radiation doses; storage life

  • IPEN-DOC 27874

    DELGADO VIEIRA, A.C.; KODAMA, Y. ; OTUBO, L. ; SANTOS, P.S. ; VASQUEZ SALVADOR, P.A. . Effect of ionizing radiation on the color of featherwork. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1367

    Abstract: Featherwork collections are usually stored and managed by ethnographic museums. Even though the featherwork manufacturing is still practiced by the indigenous communities, the offer of raw material and the contact with the surrounding society ended up reducing the production scale of such objects. Consequently, the preservation of the material culture is very important, particularly in museums. Biodegradation can affect featherworks mainly by xylophagous insects and moths’ action. The tropical Brazilian weather contributes to the contamination and proliferation of insects and fungi making the preservation conditions difficult. The use of gamma radiation for the disinfection of cultural heritage objects has shown to be a safe process and an excellent alternative to traditional methods usually involving toxic chemical pesticides. In this work are presented the preliminary results of the ionizing radiation effects on the color and morphological properties of a featherwork from the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology of the University of São Paulo (MAE/USP). Samples of feathers were selected from the artifact and irradiated with gamma rays at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN, applying absorbed doses between 0.5 kGy to 200 kGy. The results shown had no significant changes on color and morphological properties within the disinfection absorbed dose range applied.

    Palavras-Chave: calorimetry; cobalt 60; disinfestation; feathers; fungi; insects; irradiation; morphological changes; preservation; radiation dose units; radiation doses; radiation effects

  • IPEN-DOC 27873

    ALBUQUERQUE, C.R. ; MAIHARA, V.A. ; SILVA, P.S.C. . Iodine determination in edible algae species using epithermal neutron activation analysis methodology. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1365

    Abstract: Iodine is one of the essential trace elements of much interest in nutritional research being responsible for the production of the thyroid hormones, which has great importance for human metabolism. Edible algae species accumulate iodine from seawater and are considered a good dietary source of this nutrient. The Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) was applied to determine the iodine concentration in edible algae species and derivatives. Twenty-one samples for 4 edible algae species Porphyra umbilicalis (common name: Nori), Hijikia fusiforme (Hijiki), Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) and Laminaria spp. (Kombu) and 3 samples of the derivative sample, ágar, were analyzed. The results pointed out a great variability of I concentration in these species. The highest I concentration obtained was 9324±113 mg/kg in Laminaria spp. (Kombu). Hijikia fulsiforme (Hijiki) also presented high values (1803±86 mg/kg). The lowest I content was obtained in agar samples (3.18±0.29 mg/kg). All analyzed algae samples exceed the recommended value (150 μg/day) and an ingestion of 1 g/day of Laminaria spp. (Kombu) exceed the maximum tolerable limit (1100 μg/day) and its consumption must be controlled to avoid possible health problems.

    Palavras-Chave: algae; concentration ratio; iodine; metabolism; neutron activation analysis; public health; thyroid hormones; trace amounts

  • IPEN-DOC 27872

    CORTEZ, B. ; CHUBACI, J.F.D.; GOMES, M.B. ; MENDES, L. ; ROCCA, R.R.; ARIZACA, E.C.E.; WATANABE, S.. EPR dating of sediments in the region of Iguape - Cananéia, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1364

    Abstract: Dating of sediments was performed by physics method in this work. Natural radioactivity is present in sediments, and this method is based on the measurement of energy of radiation stored in the solid. Gamma irradiation of sediments create deffects in quartz structure that stores energy by the absorption of radiation. In the present work, Icapara sediment dating was done by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. The intensity of EPR signal corresponding to the number of lattice defects with an unpaired electron in sediment quartz could be measured to estimate the accumulated dose of natural radiation and to calculate the geologic age. Located in the region of Iguape at southeast coast of São Paulo State, Icapara is a large sand terrace that was formed due to sea level fluctation that occurred more than 130 thousand years ago. Samples were taken from a point about 9 - 10 meters above the current control of the sea. Ages of 38,000 ±12,000 and 46,000 ± 7,000 years were obtained in this study by EPR analysis that are correlated with the Quaternary Period.

    Palavras-Chave: age estimation; cobalt 60; crystal defects; electron spin resonance; gamma radiation; natural radioactivity; pleistocene epoch; quartz; coastal regions

  • IPEN-DOC 27871

    NAGAI, M.L.E. ; SANTOS, P.S. ; VASQUEZ, P.A.S. . Irradiation protocol for cultural heritage conservation treatment. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1351

    Abstract: Ionizing radiation supplied by cobalt-60 is an excellent alternative tool to the traditional process of decontamination of cultural and historical materials, mainly because of its biocidal action. Analyzing the occurrence of requests for treatment materials from cultural institutions with ionizing radiation for fungal decontamination in the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - CTR/IPEN, there was a need to establish a protocol for the care of institutions and individuals carrying cultural and historical collections. The study proposal was the establishment an efficient and reproducible model of an irradiation protocol for the treatment of cultural heritage materials in industrial irradiators, respecting the ethical principles of conservation and restoration activities. The objective of the protocol is to be a practical guide, from the detection of the problem to the final cleaning, so that conservator-restorers and professionals of the irradiation can act in a collaborative and objective way to reach the objective of the treatment.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; cultural objects; decontamination; disinfestation; fungi; gamma radiation; historical aspects; irradiation; preservation; recommendations

  • IPEN-DOC 27870

    CARVALHO, D.V.S. ; GREGIANIN, G.M.; MESQUITA, C.H. . Development of an automated source holder in IoT for application in industrial process tomography. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1349

    Abstract: Computed tomography technology uses an electromagnetic radiation source or particulate radiation source, to analyze / study different samples that can range from living organisms to the most diverse objects (rocks, phantoms, etc.). The use of the radioactive materials may cause harm to the operator if he is exposed to the source of radiation, so aiming at the safety of the operator, the objective of this work is to develop an Internet of Things automation system for the opening of the Industrial Process Tomography source holder for industrial tomography applications. Thus, this system can drive the stepper motors through this platform can be opened at a safe distance to the operator, avoiding the operator to take radiation dose to perform this operation. For the IPT project, five source holders were made so that each was positioned diametrically opposite each array of detectors. In this project we used 192Ir sources that have activity of 18,500 MBq and that were produced in the reactor IEA-R1, from the neutron bombardment of the pellet containing stable isotope 191Ir. The main characteristics of 192Ir are: half-life of 74.2 days; radiation energy from 0.13 to 0.65 MeV. For the safety of the operator during the opening of the sources, an automated opening system with IoT that can be activated with software installed on the tomography or by a smartphone application by the MQTT protocol, which makes it possible to be monitored in real time at long distance showing the opening and closing status of each source holder.

    Palavras-Chave: automation; computerized tomography; iridium 192; occupational exposure; openings; radiation protection; radiation sources; remote handling

  • IPEN-DOC 27869

    SANTOS, W.S.; NEVES, L.P.; PERINI, A.P.; SANTOS, C.J.; BELINATO, W.; CALDAS, L.V.E. . The influence of the lead eyewear geometry on the doses to the eye lens. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-9, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1347

    Abstract: The scattered radiation from interventional procedures is an important source of radiological risk for the medical staff. Considering all affected organs, the eye lens is among the most critical organs. As pointed out by several studies, even for low radiation doses, the appearance of cataract may occur. Considering this scenario, the radiation doses to the eye lens were determined using three different lead eyewear models commonly employed in the interventional radiology. The interventional radiologist was represented by an adult virtual anthropomorphic phantom (MASH3), coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP 6.1, in a typical cardiac interventional radiology procedure. The eyewear had a thickness 0.5 mmPb each, and the evaluation was carried out for four different beam angulations (PA, LAO90, LAO65 e RAO65), utilizing a tube voltage of 80 kVp, and HVL of 4 mmAl. The results pointed out that the shielding efficiency has a strong dependence on the eyewear type utilized, which may be very useful for the decision-making during the acquisition of such equipments.

    Palavras-Chave: crystalline lens; equivalent radiation doses; fluoroscopy; glass; lead; monte carlo method; occupational exposure; phantoms; radiation protection; shielding

  • IPEN-DOC 27868

    CASTRO, M.C. ; SILVA, N.F. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Dosimetric tests of an extrapolation chamber in standard computed tomography beams. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-6, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1338

    Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. There-fore, the radiation doses in this procedure must be accurate. For the dosimetry of CT beams, the radiation detec-tor is usually a pencil-type ionization chamber. This type of dosimeter presents a uniform response to the inci-dent radiation beam from all angles, which makes it suitable for such equipment since the X-ray tube executes a circular movement around the table during irradiation. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam yet. In order to search for a CT primary standard, an extrapolation chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) was tested. An ex-trapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber that allows the variation of its sensitive air volume. This chamber was used previously for low-energy radiation beams and showed results within the international recommended limits. The aim of this work is to perform some characterization tests (saturation curve, polarity effect, ion collection efficiency and linearity of response) considering the chamber depth of 1.25 mm in the radia-tion qualities for computed tomography beams at the LCI. The results showed to be within the international recommended limits.

    Palavras-Chave: beams; computerized tomography; dosimetry; extrapolation chambers; radiation quality; saturation; testing

  • IPEN-DOC 27867

    BRAGUIN, L.N.M. ; SILVA, C.A.J. ; COSTA, I. ; SAIKI, M. . Neutron activation analysis of austenitic stainless steel used as biomaterial. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1337

    Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel alloys, mainly those produced according to ISO 5832-1, have received much attention due to their promising characteristics to be used as biomaterials. The aim of this study was to establish the proper conditions of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in order to determine chemical elements in a sample of ISO 5832-1 stainless steel. These determinations are of great interest for further evaluation of its corrosion resistance and of cytotoxicity of corrosion products. For the analyses, chips of ISO 5832-1 austenitic stainless steel were obtained. Aliquots of this material were weighed in polyethylene involucres and irradiated together with synthetic element standards at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Short and long irradiations were carried out using thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. Quality control of the results was performed by analyzing two certified reference materials (CRMs). The elements concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo and Ni obtained in the ISO 5832-1 austenitic alloy are within the specification values of this material. Besides, the elements As, Co, V and W were determined in this alloy. The sensitivity of the technique was verified by the determination of detection and quantification limits. In the case of CRMs, their results presented precision and accuracy for most of elements with relative standard deviations and relative errors lower than 15 %. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the viability of applying NAA in the analysis of the ISO 5832-1 stainless steel alloy.

    Palavras-Chave: austenitic steels; biological materials; elements; iear-1 reactor; irradiation; neutron activation analysis; quality control; stainless steels; thermal neutrons

  • IPEN-DOC 27866

    REIS, D.P. ; MOREIRA, E.G. . Determination of toxic elements in fish of the genus 17 consumed by artisanal fishermen of the District of Riacho Grande, São Bernardo do Campo city, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-16, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1332

    Abstract: Toxic elements in contact with the human body cause numerous health problems. The contamination occurs mostly by food consumption, such as the ingestion of fish contaminated with high concentrati ons of As, Cd, Hg or Pb among other elements. Many fishermen and their family members end up exposing themselves to different toxic elements due to fish based diet as the main protein nutrient because they are unaware of the health risks associated with th e consumption of fish from contaminated waters. In the present study, quantification of the toxic or potentially toxic elements As, Br, Cs, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Sc, Se and Zn in samples of fish of the genus Astyanax (known by the common name of lambari )). The fish was collected at Billings Reservoir by fishermen from the Riacho Grande District (São Bernardo do Campo city , São Paulo State, Brazil ) is presented. The lambari fish had great relevance in this study because it is consumed as a snack, in which the subject feeds on the whole organism of the fish, having a greater risk of direct contact with toxic elements through ingestion. Elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). This study is important in establishing an updated spatiotemporal vision of the contamination by various elements of interest in the region Additionally, it contributes to the food safety assurance, regarding inorganic contaminants referred by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA).

    Palavras-Chave: elements; fishes; food; ingestion; neutron activation analysis; radionuclide kinetics; surface waters; toxicity

  • IPEN-DOC 27865

    CHIERENTIN, G.S. ; TEIXEIRA, B.S. ; MASTRO, N.L. . Total phenolic compounds of irradiated chia seeds. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-9, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1331

    Abstract: Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) is a good source of oil, protein, dietary fiber, minerals and polyphenolic compounds. In order to study the influence of the processing methods on the content of phenolic compounds, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation, doses 0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 kGy, on the total phenolic compounds extracted from chia seeds. Seeds were first defatted and extracts produced with proper solvents. Total phenolic content was determined according to Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and the extraction solvents applied were ethanol 100%, ethanol 70%, ethanol 50%, methanol 100%, methanol 70% and methanol 50%. When using ethanol 100%, ethanol 70 %, ethanol 50%, methanol 100% and methanol 70%, the extraction yield was independent of the absorbed dose. With methanol 50%, the irradiation process affected positively the total phenolic yield from of chia seeds. In general, the absorbed dose as well as the nature of the solvent affected the extraction yield, although in a limited manner.

    Palavras-Chave: antioxidants; cobalt 60; dose rates; food processing; gamma radiation; irradiation; radiation dose units; radiation effects; seeds

  • IPEN-DOC 27864

    GONCALVES, J.A.C. ; BUENO, C.C. ; MANGIAROTTI, A.. Comparative evaluation of the performance of thin diodes used as on-line dosimeters in radiation processing applications. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1327

    Abstract: In this work, we report a comparison between the performance of two samples of commercial PIN photodiodes (SFH206K from Osram® and S2506-04 from Hamamatsu®) mainly addressing the variation of their current sensitivities with accumulated dose ranging from 0-15 kGy. All the results so far obtained have revealed that the radiation induced currents are linearly dependent on dose rates from 3.65 to 55.64 Gy/h. The current sensitivity of both unirradiated diodes (0.178 nA.h/Gy.mm3) slightly decreases with accumulated dose, namely 0.32%/kGy (SFH206K) and 1.4%/kGy (S2506-04). Although the SFH206K device compares favorably with the S2506-04, both diodes can be considered as a low budge alternative, good enough for on-line dosimetry applications in the field of radiation processing.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; comparative evaluations; dose rates; dosemeters; dosimetry; gamma radiation; performance; photodiodes; sensitivity

  • IPEN-DOC 27863

    NOGUEIRA, A.L. ; MUNITA, C.S. . The effect of data standardization in cluster analysis. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1324

    Abstract: The application of multivariate techniques to experimental results requires a responsibility on behalf of the researcher to understand, evaluate and interpret their results, especially the ones that are more complex. The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of three standardization techniques on the formation of clusters by means of the Kohonen neural network were studied. The standardization techniques studied were logarithm (log), generalized-log and improved minimum-maximum. The studies were performed using two different databases consisting of 298, named B1, and 146 samples, named B2. The B1 dataset is formed by samples that form two cluster very close. However, the B2 dataset form three diferent and separated cluster. The mass fractions of As, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U, and Yb of each sample were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. Three validation indices : Jaccard, Fowlkes-Mallows and Rand were performed on the dataset. The results suggest that when the cluster are close, the improved minimum-maximum satandardization is better than the logarithm and generalized-log. However, when the cluster are separated, the logarithm and generalized-log are better than the improved minimum-maximum technique.

    Palavras-Chave: algorithms; cluster analysis; computer codes; datasets; neural networks; neutron activation analysis; standardization; statistical models

  • IPEN-DOC 27862

    BARROS, J.F. ; SILVA, R.P.; MUNITA, C.J.S. . Preliminary chemical studies at the Jericho archaeological site. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1319

    Abstract: This study measured the chemical composition of 45 ceramic samples from the Jericho archaeological site, Palestine, by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fraction of Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined with the purpose to detect the presence of ceramic groupings based on their composition. The analytical method is appropriate for this type of study because it is a non-destructive technique with high sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and determines chemical elements in trace and ultra-trace levels. These characteristics are essential to study small concentration variations. Initially the mass fractions were normalized to compensate for the large difference in magnitude among elements determined in percentage and trace level. Subsequently, the dataset was interpreted through cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups.

    Palavras-Chave: analytical solution; archaeological sites; archaeology, ceramics; chemical composition; cluster analysis; elements; gamma spectroscopy; high-purity ge detectors

  • IPEN-DOC 27861

    TAPPIZ, BRUNO ; MOREIRA, EDSON G. . Expanded uncertainty assessment in fish samples analyzed by INAA and AAS. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1314

    Abstract: Measurement uncertainty was estimated following the EURACHEM guide (Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement) for the elements As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn determined by In-strumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and for the elements Cd, Hg and Pb determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) in the fillet of the most consumed fish species at São Paulo city, Brazil. INAA expanded uncertainties ranged from 1.0 to 21% and the main contributions were due the counting statistics of sample and pipetted standards. For AAS, expanded uncertainties ranged from 6.5 to 13% and the main contri-butions were associated to the calibration curves. Uncertainty results were compared with the standard devia-tions of the mass fraction in the fishes (n = 10). Due to the wide variability in the mass fraction in the analyzed fish tissues, explained by factors such gender, age, fat content and fishing location of the specimens of each spe-cies, standard deviations were greater than expanded uncertainties, which means that the natural variability of the elements determined is greater than the data dispersion associated with the analytical techniques. Hence the used techniques were adequate for the fish fillet samples analyses.

    Palavras-Chave: absorption spectroscopy; data covariances; evaluation; fishes; neutron activation analysis; toxicity

  • IPEN-DOC 27860

    SMITH, R.B. ; ROMERO, F.; VICENTE, R. . Plutonium-238: the fuel crisis. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1312

    Abstract: Plutonium-238 is currently still the best fuel to power satellites to be sent to deep space in regions where the solar panels can no longer efficiently receive the sunlight. For 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used this radioisotope as a fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) installed on satellites such as Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Cassini-Huygens and New Horizons, as well as the various rovers sent to the Moon and to Mars, among others. Plutonium-238 is not a naturally occurring isotope on the planet, it was produced in greater quantity during the Cold War period as a by-product of the production of Plutonium-239 used for nuclear bombs. However, after the shutting down of the Savannah River reactors in 1988 and the ending of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States stock of Plutonium-238 has been increasingly reduced, which threatens NASA's future space projects. This paper presents a brief bibliographic review about the subject, as well as commentaries on the options available to the United States, from restarting the production of this fuel, to possible alternatives for a new type of fuel or equipment that may supply the spacecrafts.

    Palavras-Chave: plutonium 238; fuels; radioisotopes; reactors; nuclear fuels; satellites; plutonium oxides; control rooms; fuel elements

  • IPEN-DOC 27859

    MELO, C.G. ; ROSA, J.M. ; GARCIA, V.S.G. ; BORRELY, S.I. ; PEREIRA, M.C.C. . Toxicity and color reduction of reactive dyestuff RB 21 and surfactant submitted to electron beam irradiation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1311

    Abstract: There is an unwelcome reaction between the coloring and the water during the dyeing procedure, a portion of the coloring agent is lost in the bathing and it will compose the final whole effluent. The high absorbance index is related to lost dyestuffs and they also contribute with the toxic effects to the aquatic biota. In addition, these effluents contain large quantity of surfactants applied during dyeing baths, which also contribute to the high toxicity in these samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate electron beam irradiation technology, applied in samples of the Color Index Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21) dyestuff and in samples of surfactant non-ionic and in order to reduce toxicity for both and for RB 21, color reduction. Among the objectives of the study there are the dyestuff exhaustion degree, and some physical-chemical parameters. The acute toxicity assays were carried with Daphnia similis microcrustacean and the results of the dyestuff solution were: the irradiated samples with concentration 0.61 g L-1 did not present significant results, the EC 50 (%) value was to 58.26 for irradiated sample with 2.5 kGy and EC 50 (%) 63.59 for sample irradiated with 5 kGy. The surfactant was more toxic than RB 21, with EC 50 (%) value at 0.42. The color reduction reached 63.30% for the sample of the lowest concentration of effluent. There was a reduction of pH during irradiation.

    Palavras-Chave: color; dyes; electron beams; irradiation; liquid wastes; ph value; reduction; surfactants; toxicity; water

  • IPEN-DOC 27858

    SANTOS, E.C. ; MAIHARA, V.A. ; GENEZINI, F.A. ; SAIKI, M. . A study on tree bark samples for atmospheric pollution monitoring. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-17, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1293

    Abstract: Tree barks are considered a promising indicator of air pollution monitoring, because of its accumulation of aerosol particles, simplicity of species identification and wide geographical distribution. However, there are no established protocols for its sampling as well as there are no detailed studies on its usability as an alternative or complementary indicator of atmospheric pollution. In this study, barks from very common tree species, Sibipiruna (Poincianella pluviosa) and Tipuana (Tipuana tipu), were analyzed to define experimental conditions for their use as biomonitor of air pollution. Bark samples collected at the São Paulo city were cleaned and ground for analysis. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Sb, Sc and Zn and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) for Cd and Pb. Results obtained in these analyses indicated that species of trees, bark surface layers taken for analysis as well as tree trunk diameter or tree age should be considered for use tree bark as a biomonitor. Analytical control of results carried out by analyzing certified reference materials demonstrated that INAA and GF AAS techniques can provide reliable data for element concentrations with standardized differences, |Enscore | < 1.

    Palavras-Chave: absorption spectroscopy; air pollution monitoring; bark; biological markers; elements; neutron activation analysis; pollutants; sensitivity; trees

  • IPEN-DOC 27857

    BAPTISTA, TATYANA S. ; FEHER, ANSELMO ; RODRIGUES, BRUNA T. ; ZEITUNI, CARLOS A. ; MOURA, JOÃO A. ; ROSTELATO, MARIA E.C.M. . A proposal of process validation in the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices in brachytherapy sources production. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1285

    Abstract: New laboratories for brachytherapy sources production are being implemented in our facility at IPEN, in São Paulo. A great challenge implementing a production laboratory is to comply with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), which involves process validation and all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. Much more than compliance with regulatory guidelines, required for certification and inspections, a validation builds large process knowledge, provides possibilities for optimization and improvement, increasing the degree of maturity of all people involved and the quality system. The process validation results in a document that certifies that any procedure, process, equipment, material, operation, or system leads to the expected results. This work focused on the new laboratory, been assembled to produce small iodine-125 seeds. The process validation was performed three times for evaluation. The parameters evaluated in this study were: the source welding efficiency and the leakage tests results (immersion test). The welding efficiency does not have an established parameter, since is visually evaluated by the operator, and the leakage detection must be under 5 nCi / 185 Bq, accordingly with the ISO 9978. We observed values were average 79-87% production efficiency and leakage tests were under 5 nCi/seed. Although established values for the global efficiency aren’t available in the literature, the results showed high consistency and acceptable percentages, especially when other similar manufacturing processes are used in comparison (average 85-70% found in the literature for other similar metallic structures). Those values will be important data when drafting the validation document and to follow the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs).

    Palavras-Chave: brachytherapy; certification; implementation; iodine 125; manufacturing; quality control; radiation sources; validation

  • IPEN-DOC 27856

    FRANCA, A.A.S. ; VICENTE, R. . Immobilization of liquid radioactive waste in cement. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1283

    Abstract: Immobilization of radioactive waste is required to comply with nuclear regulations and waste acceptance criteria in a repository, which require the waste to be solid or immobilized in solid form within a durable and resistant matrix [1-4]. Cement is the most frequently used material for the immobilization of liquid, low-level waste, since it has many advantages, such as the ease of preparation at room temperature and the low cost [5, 6]. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of cement-water mixtures, homogenized in a drum using a vibration table as the mixing device. Common Portland cement was used as the immobilization matrix. The homogeneity of the mixtures is evaluated using cement dye in appropriate amounts. Initially, the distribution of the mineral dye was made by visual inspection. The batches were carried out with three different ways of feeding the components. Different results were obtained depending on the feeding methods employed.

    Palavras-Chave: cementing; dyes; homogeneous mixtures; liquid wastes; low-level radioactive wastes; mixing; portland cement; solidification

  • IPEN-DOC 27855

    BARBOSA, I.T.F.; SEO, E.S.M. ; SILVA, L.G.A. ; MIRANDA, L.F.. Hydrogels applied in cosmetology irradiated by ionizing radiation. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-15, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1278

    Abstract: Hydrogels are three-dimensionally crosslinked polymers that exhibit high capacity to absorb water or solvents, without compromising its structure, allowing its application in cosmetic products, because it presents easy scattering and vehicular active principles. The use of ionizing radiation to obtain the hydrogels provides the absence of chemical initiators; sterilization; reticulation and adjustment of physical-chemical properties. In this work different types of hydrogels containing 5 wt%, 7.5 wt% and 10 wt% PVP concentrations and different radiation 25 and 20 kGy doses were prepared, maintaining 3 wt% PEG concentrations and 1 wt% agar, based on literature studies. The samples were characterized by dehydration as a function of time, acidity, visual and sensorial analyzes and stability. The results obtained showed that all the compositions are stable, have a pH close to the skin and the compositions containing 5 wt% PVP, obtained with 20 and 25 kGy radiation dose, undergo greater dehydration. In sensory research, the hydrogels containing 7.5 wt% PVP, obtained with 25 kGy radiation dose, presented the best results in terms of absorption, sliding, odor, while the composition containing 10 wt% PVP, obtained with 25 kGy radiation dose, proved to be inadequate in the public perception. Therefore, the hydrogels obtained with 7.5 wt% PVP, with 25 kGy radiation dose, were the most suitable for applications in cosmetic products.

    Palavras-Chave: consumer products; dehydridation; hydrogels; ionizing radiations; irradiation; pvp; radiation doses

  • IPEN-DOC 27854

    SOUZA, C.D. de ; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; ARCOS ROSERO, W.A. ; NOGUEIRA, B.R. ; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . New gold-198 nanoparticle synthesis to be used in cancer treatment. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1260

    Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been intriguing scientists for over 100 years. Recently, they have been studied for new applications such as cancer treatment. Although the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is extensively reported, in the majority of cases the methodology is confused and/or not clear. We describe a new synthesis methodology for radioactive gold‐198 NPs. Gold-198 was activated in IPEN IEA-01 nuclear reactor. After that, chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was formed by dissolving the radioactive gold with aqua regia and performing repeated heating cycles. 0.1 mM HAuCl4 containing 100 μL of 1 M NaOH was prepared in a flask equipped with a reflux condenser. The solution was brought to boil and stirred with a PTFE‐coated magnetic stir‐bar. Then 5 mL of sodium citrate was rapidly added. The reaction turns from light yellow to clear, black, dark purple until the solution attained a wine‐red color (2–3 min). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirmed 8 nm particles. The presence of gold‐198 (197.968 g/mol; half‐life: 2.69517; decay mode: β‐; average energy: 1.3723 MeV) was confirmed by an ORTEC HPGe detector. DLS was performed after complete decay confirming the 8 nm diameter maintenance. TEM analysis of the same solution yielded particles with 11 nm. We were able to achieve radioactive gold‐198 NPs and are performing further studies such as: coating reactions, in‐vitro and in‐vivo studies.

    Palavras-Chave: atomic force microscopy; brachytherapy; decay; gold 198; high-purity ge detectors; light scattering; nanoparticles; neoplasms; neutron flux; radiochemistry; sodium compounds; synthesis; ultraviolet radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 27853

    OTERO, A.G.L. ; POTIENS JUNIOR, A.J. ; MARUMO, J.T. . Comparing deep learning architectures on gamma-spectroscopy analysis for nuclear waste characterization. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1257

    Abstract: Neural networks, particularly deep neural networks, are used nowadays with great success in several tasks, such as image classification, image segmentation, translation, text to speech, speech to text, achieving super-human performance. In this study, the capabilities of deep learning are explored on a new field: gamma-spectroscopy analysis, comparing the classification performance of different deep neural network architectures. The following architectures where tested: VGG-16, VGG-19, Xception, ResNet, InceptionV3, and MobileNet, which are available through the Keras Deep Learning framework to identify several different radionuclides (Am-241, Ba133, Cd-109, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, Mn-54, Na-24, and Pb-210). Using an HPGe detector to acquire several gamma spectra from different sealed sources to create a dataset used for the training and validation of the neural network's comparison. This study demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of applying deep learning on gamma-spectroscopy analysis for nuclear waste characterization.

    Palavras-Chave: artificial intelligence; computer architecture; gamma spectroscopy; high-purity ge detectors; neural networks; radioactive waste management; radioactive wastes; radioisotopes; sealed sources

  • IPEN-DOC 27852

    AQUINO, S. ; LIMA, J.E.A.; BORRELY, S.I. . Bioburden proliferation in vehicle air filters waste: the use of gamma radiation on fungal decontamination. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1254

    Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the fungal contamination of air-conditioning filters waste (n=20) as an indicator of Quality Air Indoor from different car models, that were collected from 10 exchange stations located in the South, North, West, Downtown and East, of the city of São Paulo in São Paulo State, Brazil, during the period from October 2017 to November 2018. Sampling of filter particles (33 fragments of 10 × 10-mm size) were plated onto solidified Potato Dextrose agar in Petri dishes. The samples were incubated for 7 days at 25 °C and were stored in a standard Biochemical Oxygen Demand incubator, for growth of fungal cultures. After incubation, the fungal culture in the plates was evaluated, and the total counting of infected fragments was expressed as a percentage. The fungi were examined by Lactophenol blue solution staining for microscopy. All samples were contaminated with various fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium. The study also aimed to evaluate the fungal enumeration in the samples that were irradiated with dose of 10 kGy to fungal decontamination of air-conditioning filters waste. Of total samples, 50% were completed decontaminated, but some genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Cladosporium and yeasts demonstrated radioresistance at the dose of 10 kGy. The only yeast called Rhodotorula showed an increase in growth after the irradiation process.

    Palavras-Chave: air conditioning; air filters; air quality; automobiles; cobalt 60; contamination; decontamination; fungi; wastes

  • IPEN-DOC 27851

    GUILHEN, S.N. ; SOUZA, A.L.; COTRIM, M.E.B. ; PIRES, M.A.F. . Direct determination of aluminum in low-enriched UAlx targets (UAlx-Al) by ICP OES. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-18, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1247

    Abstract: The production of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) using low-enriched uranium targets (< 20% 235U) dispersed in aluminum (UAlx) is a very promising strategy towards the independence in 99Mo local production. A thorough control must be performed to ensure that these targets meet the regulatory requirements to achieve the expected efficiency in the reactor. The determination of the targets’ composition is of high interest, because the distribution of Al in different phases may have an impact on the U concentration. Among the techniques used for this purpose, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) stands out because of its high sensitivity and precision, allowing for simultaneous determination of several elements in a variety of samples and matrices. However, because U exhibits a complex emission spectrum, spectral interferences are prone to affect the analysis of Al, calling for time consuming preparation steps to remove the U from the matrix. This study proposes a method of direct determination of Al in UAlx targets through the selection of specific emission lines enabled by the evaluation of the associated interferences on the recovery values.

    Palavras-Chave: aluminium; chemical analysis; emission spectroscopy; molybdenum 99; plasma; technetium 99; uranium 235 target

  • IPEN-DOC 27850

    FERREIRA, A.O.; PECEQUILO, B.R.S. . Dose rates evaluation of some granitic rocks from the Paraná state. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-11, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1242

    Abstract: Granitic rocks, widely used as building materials, are known to contain natural radionuclides and can be an important source of radiation for the population. Thirty-four samples of granite rocks from geological occurrences in Paraná state were measured with detector for evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations. The effective annual external dose was evaluated from these radionuclides activities using a dosimetric room model with dimensions 4 m x 5 m x 2.8 m in which all walls are internally coated with 2 cm thickness granites and considering the annual exposure time of 7000 h, suggested by the European Commission on Radiological Protection for superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was evaluated from radon air concentration of the model room, simulated from an exhalation rate of 222Rn, determined with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors by the sealed can technique, considering a ventilation rate of 0.5 h-1 and the same annual exposure time of 7000 h. The results for external gamma rays showed an increase in the annual effective dose ranging from 96 ± 4 μSv.a-1 to 223 ± 7 μSv.a-1 and, for radon inhalation, an increase in the ranging from 0.4 ± 0.04 μSv.a-1 to 70 ± 4 μSv.a-1. All results stayed below the recommended value by the European Commission on Radiological Protection, of 1 mSv.a-1.

    Palavras-Chave: building materials; environmental effects; high-purity ge detectors; inhalation; potassium 40; radiation doses; radiation protection; radium 226; radon 222; thorium 232

  • IPEN-DOC 27849

    CAVALCANTE, F. ; NISTI, M.B. ; SAUEIA, C.H.R. . Estimation of exposure levels of terrestrial biota and radiation exposure around IPEN’s facilities. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1A.1235

    Abstract: Humans are exposed to natural radiation; soil is a major source of external and internal exposure of radiation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure levels of terrestrial biota and to estimate the radiation exposure around Instituto of Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) facilities. The ERICA Tool was used to calculate the exposure levels of terrestrial biota; the estimation of radiation exposure for humans was determined using a model proposed by UNSCEAR and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk. Six soil points were collected and their activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Two soil points showed a risk coefficient greater than 1, suggesting that the screening dose ratio of 10μGy h-1 might be exceeding for the most exposed species, namely lichen and bryophytes, even though the activity concentration values of the analyzed radionuclides showed no evidence of soil contamination due to the atmospheric discharges of the IPEN facilities. Thus, the radioactive discharges in the soil from all facilities are negligible. Hence, the authors concluded that the ERICA Tool can be useful in assisting environmental radiological monitoring program for decision-making, especially regarding: points collected, sample types and sampling frequency.

    Palavras-Chave: activity levels; bryophyta; environmental exposure pathway; gamma spectroscopy; high-purity ge detectors; human populations; ionizing radiations; lichens; soils; unscear

  • IPEN-DOC 27848

    VILLAS BOAS, C.A.W. ; DIAS, L.A.P. ; MATSUDA, M.M.N. ; ARAUJO, E.B. . Stability in production and transport of 177Lu labeled PSMA. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1.1619

    Abstract: In Brazil, prostate cancer is a common disease among men. The radionuclide therapy with PSMA analogs, labeled with beta and alpha emitters, has brought new perspectives for patients with multi metastatic resistant prostate cancer. The commercialization of radiopharmaceutical becomes a challenge to transport and ensure the quality of the product, especially in terms of radiochemical stability of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The effect of radiolysis on therapeutic doses of radiopharmaceuticals can be avoided or mitigated by diluting the final dose and reducing storage and transportation temperature. This study evaluated the effect of radiolysis on the different radioactive concentration in the industrial batches of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and in the fractionated doses, considering long time transportation. The radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-PSMA-617 was produced in batches reaching 37 GBq, and stability studies were performed in controlled conditions. The results showed that a combination of factors, including reaction buffer, the radioactive concentration of final product, and freezing storage contributed to the stability of the radiopharmaceutical for 48 hours, enabling transport of 177Lu-PSMA-617 to distant regions of the country.

    Palavras-Chave: neoplasms; prostate; lutetium 177; antigens; radiopharmaceuticals; radiolysis; stability

  • IPEN-DOC 27847

    SILVA, A.L.C.; SILVA, A.T. . Comparison of computer programs to analyze the irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel plates and UO2 cylindrical fuel rods in power reactors. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-17, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1.1604

    Abstract: The aim of this work is to present a comparative analysis in terms of the irradiation performance of cylindrical uranium dioxide fuel rods and monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel plates in pressurized light water reactors. To analyze the irradiation performance of monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel plates when subjected to steady state operating conditions in light water pressurized reactors, the computer program PADPLAC-UMo was used, which performs thermal and mechanical analysis of the fuel taking into account the physical , chemicals and irradiation effects to which this fuel is subjected. For the analysis of the uranium dioxide fuel rods, the code FRAPCON was used, which is an analytical tool that verifies the irradiation performance of fuel rods of pressurized light water reactor, when the power variations and the boundary conditions are slow enough for the term permanent regime to be applied. The analysis for a small nuclear power reactor, despite the higher power density applied to the fuel plate in relation to the fuel rod, showed that the fuel plates have lower temperatures and lower fission gas releases throughout the analyzed power history, allowing the use of a more compact reactor core without exceeding the design limits imposed on nuclear fuel.

    Palavras-Chave: computer codes; computerized simulation; molybdenum; nuclear fuels; performance; power reactors; uranium

  • IPEN-DOC 27846

    NEGRO, M.L.N. ; DURAZZO, M. ; MESQUITA, M.A.; SCURO, N.L. ; CARVALHO, E.F.U. ; ANDRADE, D.A. . A simulation model for capacity planning of nuclear fuel plants for research reactors. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-28, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1.1588

    Abstract: The demand for nuclear fuel for research reactors is increasing worldwide. However, some nuclear fuel factories have low production volumes. Literature regarding how to expand the capacity of those facilities in a safe and reliable way is scarce. Thus, the purpose of this work is to propose and validate a conceptual model for increasing the production capacity of such factories. The facilities addressed here are those that produce plate-type fuel elements loaded with LEU U3Si2-Al, which are typically used in nuclear research reactors. Data from a real nuclear fuel plant was collected and applied to the model, thus setting up a case study. Two different strategies, as well as several production scenarios, were conceived for the use of the model. Each scenario experiments with the different possibilities of enlarging capacity. Discrete events simulation was used in order to cover all production scenarios. The tests indicated significant increases in productive capacity, thus showing that the model fully achieved its proposed objective. One of the main conclusions to be highlighted is the model’s effectiveness, which was demonstrated by using the model in two different strategies and obtaining increases in capacity with both of them.

    Palavras-Chave: augmentation; computerized simulation; fuel plates; hydrolysis; nuclear fuels; production; research reactors; uranium fluorides; uranium silicides

  • IPEN-DOC 27845

    QUEIROZ, CARLOS A. da S. ; PEDREIRA FILHO, WALTER dos R.. Production of high purity samarium acetate for use in nuclear area. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-14, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v9i1.1265

    Abstract: Samarium is currently used in many applications, such as catalysts, lasers and metal alloys. Samarium is also employed to absorb neutrons in nuclear reactors. In medicine, samarium is used in the form of radioactive 153Sm to produce radiopharmaceuticals. A simple process for the preparation of pure samarium acetate was studied. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin to fractionate rare earth elements (REE). Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm2O3 and yield greater than or equal 60% was eluted by ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in con-trolled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was transformed into samarium oxide, which was subsequently dis-solved in acetic acid to obtain the samarium acetate. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to moni-tor the samarium and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium acetate. The solid salt was characterized by chemical analysis, thermal analysis, infrared spectros-copy and X ray diffraction. The analytical data collected allowed to conclude that stoichiometric formula for the samarium acetate obtained is Sm(CH3COO)3.4.H2O.

    Palavras-Chave: edta; fourier transformation; icp mass spectroscopy; impurities; infrared spectra; ion exchange chromatography; production; samarium oxides; thermal gravimetric analysis

  • IPEN-DOC 27844

    PEREIRA, IRACI M. ; MORAES, DAVI A. . Monitoring system for an experimental facility using GMDH methodology. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 8, n. 3B, p. 1-12, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v8i3B.663

    Abstract: This work presents a Monitoring System based on the GMDH - Group Method of Data Handling methodology applied in an Experimental Test Facility. GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. The Fault Test Experimental Facility was designed inspired in a PWR nuclear power plant and is composed by elements that correspond to the pressure vessel, steam generator, pumps of the primary and secondary reactor loops. The nuclear reactor core is represented by an electrical heater with different values of power. The exper-imental plant is fully instrumented with sensors and actuators. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and faulty data. These failures can be added initially with small magnitude, and their magnitude being increasing gradually in a controlled way. The database will interface with the plant supervisory system SCADA (Super-visory Control and Data Acquisition) that provides the data through standard interface.

    Palavras-Chave: algorithms; artificial intelligence; computerized simulation; failures; g codes; polynomials; pwr type reactors; reactor cores; s codes; test facilities; volterra integral equations

  • IPEN-DOC 27843

    CASTRO, MAYSA C. ; SILVA, NATALIA F. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 8, n. 3B, p. 1-8, 2021. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v8i3B.376

    Abstract: Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber, built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-ray beams established for computed tomography at the LCI.

    Palavras-Chave: calibration; computerized tomography; extrapolation chambers; performance; radiation doses; saturation; stability; x radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 27842

    FREIRE, BRUNA M.; GONZAGA, ROBERTA G.; PEDRON, TATIANA; MONTEIRO, LUCILENA R. ; LANGE, CAMILA N.; PEDREIRA FILHO, WALTER dos R.; BATISTA, BRUNO L.. Occupational exposure to potentially toxic elements in the foundry industry: an integrated environmental and biological monitoring. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 26, p. 34630-34641, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13099-y

    Abstract: Industrial foundry processes release metal dust and fumes into the environment. Our study evaluated the exposure to potentially toxic elements in foundry workers. The assessed samples consisted of air particulate matter (n = 42), urine (n = 194), and blood (n = 167). Six workers had high concentrations of arsenic (As) in urine and one of them had a high cadmium (Cd) content in blood, according to Biological Exposure Index from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The work task significantly influenced the concentrations of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in air, barium (Ba) in urine, and lead (Pb) and cesium (Cs) in blood, while the employment years affected concentrations of Mn, tin (Sn), and uranium (U) in urine and iodine (I) in blood. Arsenic, Pb, Co, and Cd in particulate matter and biological matrices presented significant covariation by working activity, supporting the occupational exposure. In this study, subjects were occupationally exposed to multiple potentially toxic elements. Carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks were associated with As, Co, Ni, and Mn exposure.

    Palavras-Chave: environment; monitoring; foundries; occupational exposure; risk assessment; carcinogens; metals; toxic materials

  • IPEN-DOC 27841

    BERGAMO, EDMARA T.P.; CARDOSO, KARINA B.; LINO, LUCAS F.O.; CAMPOS, TIAGO M.B.; MONTEIRO, KELLI N.; CESAR, PAULO F.; GENOVA, LUIS A. ; THIM, GILMAR P.; COELHO, PAULO G.; BONFANTE, ESTEVAM A.. Alumina-toughened zirconia for dental applications: physicochemical, mechanical, optical, and residual stress characterization after artificial aging. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, v. 109, n. 8, p. 1135-1144, 2021. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34776

    Abstract: To characterize the physicomechanical properties of an alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ). ATZ synthesis consisted of the addition of alumina particles in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) matrix. Specimens were obtained by uniaxial and isostatic pressing ATZ and 3Y-TZP powders and sintering at 1600°C/1 h and 1550°C/1 h, respectively. Crystalline content and residual stress were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties were determined by reflectance test. Mechanical properties were assessed by biaxial flexural strength test. All analyses were performed before and after aging (134°C, 20 h, 2 bar). XRD and SEM revealed a typical ATZ and 3Y-TZP crystalline content, chiefly tetragonal phase, with a dense polycrystalline matrix, though a smaller grain size for ATZ. Aging triggered a similar monoclinic transformation for both systems; however, ATZ exhibited higher residual compressive stresses than 3Y-TZP. While as-processed 3Y-TZP demonstrated significantly higher characteristic strength relative to ATZ, no significant difference was observed after aging (~215 MPa increase in the ATZ strength). ATZ presented significantly higher opacity relative to 3Y-TZP, although aging significantly increased the translucency of both systems (increase difference significantly higher in the 3Y-TZP compared to ATZ). ATZ physicomechanical properties support its applicability in the dental field, with a lower detrimental effect of aging relative to 3Y-TZP.

    Palavras-Chave: zirconium; dentistry; ceramics; composite materials; optical properties; aging

  • IPEN-DOC 27840

    ROSA, JORGE M. ; MELO, CAMILA G. ; PEREIRA, MARIA da C.C. ; BORRELY, SUELI I. . Reactive Blue 21 exhaustion degree investigated using the surface response methodology as an auxiliary tool in cotton dyeing. Journal of Natural Fibers, v. 18, n. 4, p. 520-530, 2021. DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2019.1636739

    Abstract: Response surface methodology was used to investigate the influences of sodium chloride (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations on cotton and the degree of exhaustion (DE) of Reactive Blue 21 dyestuff (RB21), as well as to optimize dyeing conditions. A 23 central composite and rotational design was used as a support to carry out 17 dyeings with RB21 on a 100% knitted cotton substrate. NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaOH concentrations were used as factors. Responses comprised color strength (K S‒1) and the DE. The results indicate that a square model was the best fit. This model was able to increase both K S‒1 and DE values, with the colorfastness to water and rubbing carried out with supplier’s formulation recipe. This study demonstrates that the use of the response surface methodology in color matching can contribute to the textile industry in the prediction or assessment of formulations for a specific color.

    Palavras-Chave: dyes; cotton; exhaust systems; color; surfaces

  • IPEN-DOC 27839

    LUCAS-SOLIS, OSCAR; MOULATLET, GABRIEL M.; GUAMANGALLO, JENIFFER; YACELGA, NAOMI; VILLEGAS, LIPSI; GALARZA, EMILY; ROSERO, BRYAN; ZURITA, BRYAN; SABANDO, LIZETH; CABRERA, MARCELA; GIMILIANI, GIOVANA T. ; CAPPARELLI, MARIANA V.. Preliminary assessment of plastic litter and microplastic contamination in freshwater depositional areas: the case study of Puerto Misahualli, Ecuadorian Amazonia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 107, n. 1, p. 45-51, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-021-03138-2

    Abstract: We quantify plastic litter (PL, > 2 cm) and microplastics (MP, < 5 mm) from the sediments of a beach formed at a riverine depositional area, at the upper Amazon River basin, Ecuador. In the collection area (4400 m2), the PL density was 0.045 items m−2, where low-density polyethylene bags were the prevalent PL. The beach was classified as “very clean” (Clean Coast Index (CCI) of 1.3 items m−2). Regarding MP, in 55 sampling stations, average MP concentrations ranged from 0 to 2200 items kg−1 of dry sediment (0.5–2 mm), and 0–4200 items kg−1 of dry sediment (2–5 mm). Blue fibers were the prevalent MP. Our results represent the first report to show the ubiquitous presence of PL and MP for the area. The monitoring and management of plastic disposal in freshwater beaches are necessary, as here we report a small part of an undocumented issue.

    Palavras-Chave: plastics; waste water; water pollution; sewage; rivers; waste processing

  • IPEN-DOC 27838

    THEOPHILO, CAROLINA Y.S. ; RIBEIRO, ANDREZA P.; MOREIRA, EDSON G. ; ARANHA, SIDNEI; BOLLMANN, HARRY A.; SANTOS, CLEITON J.; OLIVEIRA, ANDERSON de; SANTOS, SIDNEY dos; SAIKI, MITIKO ; SALDIVA, PAULO H.N.; FERREIRA, MAURICIO L.. Biomonitoring as a nature‐based solution to assess atmospheric pollution and impacts on public health. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 107, n. 1, p. 29-36, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-021-03205-8

    Abstract: The control of air pollution remains a challenge to the planning of cities and fossil fuel burning is the main cause of air degradation. Particulate matter (PM) is the contaminant commonly used as an indicator of pollution, but environmental agencies may face difficulties in operating surveillance networks due to the lack of resources and infrastructure. As an alternative to conventional networks, scientific studies have pointed out that nature itself can contribute to the diagnosis and reduction of air pollution. Nature-based solutions (NbS) are proposals that use natural processes and structures to meet different environmental challenges. In this study, biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides was applied as a NbS tool to evaluate air quality in an important port urban area in the city of Guarujá, Brazil, affected by industrial and vehicular emissions. It was observed that cadmium mass fractions were at least forty times higher than the control area with one-month exposition.

    Palavras-Chave: air pollution monitoring; plants; cadmium; urban areas; biological indicators

  • IPEN-DOC 27837

    FERREIRA, MERILYN S. ; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. . Diode-side-pumped, intracavity Nd:YLF/KGW/LBO Raman laser at 573 nm for retinal photocoagulation. Optics Letters, v. 46, n. 3, p. 508-511, 2021. DOI: 10.1364/OL.411895

    Abstract: Wavelengths in the yellow-orange range are of significant interest for retinal photocoagulation and are especially important in the case of diabetic retinopathy, which can cause blindness and affects 3.3% of all working-age adults. This work presents a highly-efficient, compact, and cost-efficient side-pumped, intracavity Raman configuration to achieve this objective. A side-pumped Nd:YLF/KGW/LBO frequency-doubled Raman laser producing 11.7 W of output power at 1147 nm with 21% of slope efficiency and 6 W of output power at 573.5 nm with 12% slope efficiency is demonstrated.

    Palavras-Chave: retina; lasers; crystals; diode-pumped solid state lasers; ophthalmology; diabetes mellitus

  • IPEN-DOC 27836

    LIMA, VERA M.F. de ; HANKE, WOLFGANG. Reversibility of excitation waves in brain and heart and the energy of interfacial water: Can reversibility be explained by it?. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, v. 162, p. 129-140, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2020.11.002

    Abstract: In this manuscript, we interpret the implications of a discovery we made in 1993 for the understanding of the spread of excitation waves in axon, central gray matter (isolated retina) and heart. We propose that the initial burst of energy dissipation in these waves measured as potentials drops, ionic activities marked changes or optical properties being mostly the effect of dissociated water becoming liquid water and be reversible due to the further on dissociation during the refractory period. We also propose experiments in order to falsify or agree with this conjecture.

    Palavras-Chave: retina; excitation; wave propagation; resonance; epilepsy

  • IPEN-DOC 27835

    STEFANI, GIOVANNI L. de ; MAIORINO, JOSE R.; MOREIRA, JOAO M. de L.. The AP-Th 1000: an advanced concept to use MOX of thorium in a closed fuel cycle. International Journal of Energy Research, v. 45, n. 8, SI, p. 11642-11655, 2021. DOI: 10.1002/er.5421

    Abstract: This work presents the feasibility studies to convert the UO2 core of the Westinghouse AP1000 reactor to a U/Th core aiming at U/Th fuel recycling. The focus of the work is to establish a first core which allows normal operation of the AP1000 reactor and investigate a possible route for generating the 233U for U/Th fuel recycling. The converted core named AP-Th1000 is divided in three homogenous zones with different UO2/ThO2 mass proportions. The reprocessing procedure envisioned is to separate fission products and Pu isotopes, retain Uranium, use this fuel material in subsequent fuel cycles and complement the required fissile material with U with enrichment below 20%. The goal was to gradually reduce the mass proportion of mined Uranium fuel and eventually attain a Th-233U core with similar operation characteristics of current AP1000 core. We perform a detailed three-dimensional full core analysis with the SERPENT code examining core reactivity, power density distribution, and also a preliminary closed cycle study for the first 4 cycles where the production of 233U are evaluated. The goal of converting the AP1000 reactor core to a U/ThO2 fuel cycle was partially accomplished. While the first cycle was thoroughly examined and met all requirements we were not able to find a route to migrate it to a prevalent Th cycle. Basically, two of the set of criteria adopted in the study proved to be too restrictive to attain this goal with homogenous assembly, namely U enrichment below 20% and not recycling Pu. The results indicate that removing these two criteria the conversion factor in the ensuing fuel cycles can be increased and possibly attain a Th cycle without compromising the economics of power generation. The design changes were the elimination of IFBA burnable absorbers and replacement of gray control bundles by black control bundles.

    Palavras-Chave: thorium; pwr type reactors; reactor cores; fuel cycle

  • IPEN-DOC 27834

    PEREIRA, SAULO T. ; SILVA, CAMILA R. ; NUNEZ, SILVIA C.; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Safety and clinical impact of a single red light irradiation on breast tumor-bearing mice. Photochemistry and Photobiology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 435-442, 2021. DOI: 10.1111/php.13338

    Abstract: Low-level light therapy has been used in health care as a therapeutic strategy for different diseases. However, its effects on cancer are controversial. This work evaluated the effects of three energies on breast cancer-bearing mice after a single red light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation. 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c mice. When tumor volume reached 100 mm3, animals were irradiated by a LED irradiator (660 ± 11 nm) with energies of 1.2, 3.6, and 6.0 J. Control without irradiation and healthy animals were also evaluated. Mice were monitored regarding tumor volume and total blood count. After euthanasia, their organs were examined. We observed that a single irradiation does not increase tumor volume. All irradiated groups exhibited better clinical conditions than control, which presented a significant decrease in platelet and red blood cell levels compared with healthy mice. The energy of 3.6 J arrested neutrophil-lymphocyte rate besides promoting longer survival and a lower number of metastatic nodules in the lungs. These findings suggest that a single red LED irradiation causes no impact on the course of the disease. Besides, the intermediary dose-effect should be further investigated since it seems to promote better outcomes on breast cancer-bearing mice.

    Palavras-Chave: tumor cells; neoplasms; mammary glands; light emitting diodes; therapy; ultraviolet radiation

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A pesquisa no RD utiliza os recursos de busca da maioria das bases de dados. No entanto algumas dicas podem auxiliar para obter um resultado mais pertinente.

É possível efetuar a busca de um autor ou um termo em todo o RD, por meio do Buscar no Repositório , isto é, o termo solicitado será localizado em qualquer campo do RD. No entanto esse tipo de pesquisa não é recomendada a não ser que se deseje um resultado amplo e generalizado.

A pesquisa apresentará melhor resultado selecionando um dos filtros disponíveis em Navegar

Os filtros disponíveis em Navegar tais como: Coleções, Ano de publicação, Títulos, Assuntos, Autores, Revista, Tipo de publicação são autoexplicativos. O filtro, Autores IPEN apresenta uma relação com os autores vinculados ao IPEN; o ID Autor IPEN diz respeito ao número único de identificação de cada autor constante no RD e sob o qual estão agrupados todos os seus trabalhos independente das variáveis do seu nome; Tipo de acesso diz respeito à acessibilidade do documento, isto é , sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, ID RT apresenta a relação dos relatórios técnicos, restritos para consulta das comunidades indicadas.

A opção Busca avançada utiliza os conectores da lógica boleana, é o melhor recurso para combinar chaves de busca e obter documentos relevantes à sua pesquisa, utilize os filtros apresentados na caixa de seleção para refinar o resultado de busca. Pode-se adicionar vários filtros a uma mesma busca.


Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

Autor: Maprelian

Título: loss of coolant

Tipo de publicação: Texto completo de evento

Ano de publicação: 2015

Para indexação dos documentos é utilizado o Thesaurus do INIS, especializado na área nuclear e utilizado em todos os países membros da International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA , por esse motivo, utilize os termos de busca de assunto em inglês; isto não exclui a busca livre por palavras, apenas o resultado pode não ser tão relevante ou pertinente.

95% do RD apresenta o texto completo do documento com livre acesso, para aqueles que apresentam o significa que e o documento está sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, solicita-se nesses casos contatar a Biblioteca do IPEN, .

Ao efetuar a busca por um autor o RD apresentará uma relação de todos os trabalhos depositados no RD. No lado direito da tela são apresentados os coautores com o número de trabalhos produzidos em conjunto bem como os assuntos abordados e os respectivos anos de publicação agrupados.

O RD disponibiliza um quadro estatístico de produtividade, onde é possível visualizar o número dos trabalhos agrupados por tipo de coleção, a medida que estão sendo depositados no RD.

Na página inicial nas referências são sinalizados todos os autores IPEN, ao clicar nesse símbolo será aberta uma nova página correspondente à aquele autor – trata-se da página do pesquisador.

Na página do pesquisador, é possível verificar, as variações do nome, a relação de todos os trabalhos com texto completo bem como um quadro resumo numérico; há links para o Currículo Lattes e o Google Acadêmico ( quando esse for informado).



O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

1. Portaria IPEN-CNEN/SP nº 387, que estabeleceu os princípios que nortearam a criação do RDI, clique aqui.

2. A experiência do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) na criação de um Repositório Digital Institucional – RDI, clique aqui.

O Repositório Digital do IPEN é um equipamento institucional de acesso aberto, criado com o objetivo de reunir, preservar, disponibilizar e conferir maior visibilidade à Produção Científica publicada pelo Instituto, desde sua criação em 1956.

Operando, inicialmente como uma base de dados referencial o Repositório foi disponibilizado na atual plataforma, em junho de 2015. No Repositório está disponível o acesso ao conteúdo digital de artigos de periódicos, eventos, nacionais e internacionais, livros, capítulos, dissertações, teses e relatórios técnicos.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.