Navegação Periódicos - Artigos por autor "10204"

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  • IPEN-DOC 26404

    MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; LOPES, FABIO J. da S. ; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.; SILVA, JONATAN J. da ; GOMES, ANTONIO A. ; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS. Analyzing the atmospheric boundary layer using high-order moments obtained from multiwavelength lidar data: impact of wavelength choice. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, v. 12, n. 8, p. 4261-4276, 2019. DOI: 10.5194/amt-12-4261-2019

    Abstract: The lowest region of the troposphere is a turbulent layer known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and characterized by high daily variability due to the influence of surface forcings. This is the reason why detecting systems with high spatial and temporal resolution, such as lidar, have been widely applied for researching this region. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis on the use of lidar-backscattered signals at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) to study the ABL by investigating the highorder moments, which give us information about the ABL height (derived by the variance method), aerosol layer movement (skewness) and mixing conditions (kurtosis) at several heights. Previous studies have shown that the 1064 nm wavelength, due to the predominance of particle signature in the total backscattered atmospheric signal and practically null presence of molecular signal (which can represent noise in high-order moments), provides an appropriate description of the turbulence field, and thus in this study it was considered a reference. We analyze two case studies that show us that the backscattered signal at 355 nm, even after applying some corrections, has a limited applicability for turbulence studies using the proposed methodology due to the strong contribution of the molecular signature to the total backscatter signal. This increases the noise associated with the high-order profiles and, consequently, generates misinformation. On the other hand, the information on the turbulence field derived from the backscattered signal at 532 nm is similar to that obtained at 1064 nm due to the appropriate attenuation of the noise, generated by molecular component of backscattered signal by the application of the corrections proposed.

    Palavras-Chave: troposphere; optical radar; boundary layers; atmospheres; aerosols; turbulence; air quality; monitoring


  • IPEN-DOC 25711

    MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.; BENAVENT-OLTRA, JOSE A.; ORTIZ-AMEZCUA, PABLO; ROMAN, ROBERTO; BEDOYA-VELASQUEZ, ANDRES E.; BRAVO-ARANDA, JUAN A.; REYES, FRANCISCO J.O.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS. Analyzing the turbulent planetary boundary layer by remote sensing systems: the Doppler wind lidar, aerosol elastic lidar and microwave radiometer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 19, n. 2, p. 1263-1280, 2019. DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-1263-2019

    Abstract: The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowermost region of troposphere and is endowed with turbulent characteristics, which can have mechanical and/or thermodynamic origins. This behavior gives this layer great importance, mainly in studies about pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting. However, the instruments usually applied in studies of turbulence in the PBL have limitations in spatial resolution (anemometer towers) or temporal resolution (instrumentation aboard an aircraft). Ground-based remote sensing, both active and passive, offers an alternative for studying the PBL. In this study we show the capabilities of combining different remote sensing systems (microwave radiometer – MWR, Doppler lidar – DL – and elastic lidar – EL) for retrieving a detailed picture on the PBL turbulent features. The statistical moments of the high frequency distributions of the vertical wind velocity, derived from DL, and of the backscattered coefficient, derived from EL, are corrected by two methodologies, namely first lag correction and 􀀀2=3 law correction. The corrected profiles, obtained from DL data, present small differences when compared with the uncorrected profiles, showing the low influence of noise and the viability of the proposed methodology. Concerning EL, in addition to analyzing the influence of noise, we explore the use of different wavelengths that usually include EL systems operated in extended networks, like the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET), Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET), NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) or Skyradiometer Network (SKYNET). In this way we want to show the feasibility of extending the capability of existing monitoring networks without strong investments or changes in their measurements protocols. Two case studies were analyzed in detail, one corresponding to a well-defined PBL and another corresponding to a situation with presence of a Saharan dust lofted aerosol layer and clouds. In both cases we discuss results provided by the different instruments showing their complementarity and the precautions to be applied in the data interpretation. Our study shows that the use of EL at 532 nm requires a careful correction of the signal using the first lag time correction in order to get reliable turbulence information on the PBL.

    Palavras-Chave: boundary layers; troposphere; planetary atmospheres; doppler effect; wind; optical radar; monitoring; microwave radiation; radiometers; aerosols; elastic scattering; remote sensing


  • IPEN-DOC 26653


    Abstract: This study evaluates the potential of the GRASP algorithm (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) to retrieve continuous day-to-night aerosol properties, both column-integrated and vertically resolved. The study is focused on the evaluation of GRASP retrievals during an intense Saharan dust event that occurred during the Sierra Nevada Lidar aerOsol Profiling Experiment I (SLOPE I) field campaign. For daytime aerosol retrievals, we combined the measurements of the ground-based lidar from EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) station and sun–sky photometer from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), both instruments co-located in Granada (Spain). However, for night-time retrievals three different combinations of active and passive remote-sensing measurements are proposed. The first scheme (N0) uses lidar night-time measurements in combination with the interpolation of sun–sky daytime measurements. The other two schemes combine lidar night-time measurements with nighttime aerosol optical depth obtained by lunar photometry either using intensive properties of the aerosol retrieved during sun–sky daytime measurements (N1) or using the Moon aureole radiance obtained by sky camera images (N2). Evaluations of the columnar aerosol properties retrieved by GRASP are done versus standard AERONET retrievals. The coherence of day-to-night evolutions of the different aerosol properties retrieved by GRASP is also studied. The extinction coefficient vertical profiles retrieved by GRASP are compared with the profiles calculated by the Raman technique at night-time with differences below 30% for all schemes at 355, 532 and 1064 nm. Finally, the volume concentration and scattering coefficient retrieved by GRASP at 2500ma.s.l. are evaluated by in situ measurements at this height at Sierra Nevada Station. The differences between GRASP and in situ measurements are similar for the different schemes, with differences below 30% for both volume concentration and scattering coefficient. In general, for the scattering coefficient, the GRASP N0 and N1 show better results than the GRASP N2 schemes, while for volume concentration, GRASP N2 shows the lowest differences against in situ measurements (around 10 %) for high aerosol optical depth values.

    Palavras-Chave: algorithms; aerosol monitoring; surface properties; dusts; optical properties; optical radar; deserts; aerosol wastes; raman effect


  • IPEN-DOC 26501

    SOUPIONA, O.; SAMARAS, S.; ORTIZ-AMEZCUA, P.; BOCKMANN, C.; PAPAYANNIS, A.; MOREIRA, G.A. ; BENAVENT-OLTRA, J.A.; GUERRERO-RASCADO, J.L.; BEDOYA-VELASQUEZ, A.E.; OLMO, F.J.; ROMAN, R.; KOKKALIS, P.; MYLONAKI, M.; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, L.; PAPANIKOLAOU, C.A.; FOSKINIS, R.. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of transported Saharan dust over Athens and Granada based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements: study of the mixing processes. Atmospheric Environment, v. 214, p. 1-15, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.116824

    Abstract: In this paper we extract the aerosol microphysical properties for a collection of mineral dust cases measured by multi-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar systems located at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA, Athens, Greece) and the Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA-CEAMA, Granada, Spain). The lidar-based retrievals were carried out with the Spheroidal Inversion eXperiments software tool (SphInX) developed at the University of Potsdam (Germany). The software uses regularized inversion of a two-dimensional enhancement of the Mie model based on the spheroid-particle approximation with the aspect ratio determining the particle shape. The selection of the cases was based on the transport time from the source regions to the measuring sites. The aerosol optical depth as measured by AERONET ranged from 0.27 to 0.54 (at 500 nm) depending on the intensity of each event. Our analysis showed the hourly mean particle linear depolarization ratio and particle lidar ratio values at 532 nm ranging from 11 to 34% and from 42 to 79 sr respectively, depending on the mixing status, the corresponding air mass pathways and their transport time. Cases with shorter transport time showed good agreement in terms of the optical and SphInXretrieved microphysical properties between Athens and Granada providing a complex refractive index value equal to 1.4 + 0.004i. On the other hand, the results for cases with higher transport time deviated from the aforementioned ones as well as from each other, providing, in particular, an imaginary part of the refractive index ranging from 0.002 to 0.005. Reconstructions of two-dimensional shape-size distributions for each selected layer showed that the dominant effective particle shape was prolate with diverse spherical contributions. The retrieved volume concentrations reflect overall the intensity of the episodes.

    Palavras-Chave: aerosols; minerals; dusts; aerial monitoring; deserts; optical radar; depolarization; computer codes; aerosol monitoring


  • IPEN-DOC 25822

    BEDOYA-VELASQUEZ, ANDRES E.; NAVAS-GUZMAN, FRANCISCO; MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; ROMAN, ROBERTO; CAZORLA, ALBERTO; ORTIZ-AMEZCUA, PABLO; BENAVENT-OLTRA, JOSE A.; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS; OLMO-REYES, FRANCISCO J.; FOYO-MORENO, INMACULADA; MONTILLA-ROSERO, ELENA; HOYOS, CARLOS D.; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.. Seasonal analysis of the atmosphere during five years by using microwave radiometry over a mid-latitude site. Atmospheric Research, v. 218, p. 78-89, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.11.014

    Abstract: This work focuses on the analysis of the seasonal cycle of temperature and relative humidity (RH) profiles and integrated water vapor (IWV) obtained from microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements over the mid-latitude city of Granada, southern Spain. For completeness the study, the maximum atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLHmax) is also included. To this end, we have firstly characterized the HATPRO-RPG MWR errors using 55 colocated radiosondes (RS) by means of the mean-bias (bias) profile and the standard deviation (SDbias) profile classified under all-weather conditions and cloud-free conditions. This characterization pointed out that temperature from HATPRO-MWR presents a very low bias respects RS mostly below 2.0 km agl, ranging from positive to negative values under all-weather conditions (from 1.7 to −0.4 K with SDbias up to 3.0 K). Under cloud-free conditions, the bias was very similar to that found under allweather conditions (1.8 to −0.4 K) but with smaller SDbias (up to 1.1 K). The same behavior is also seen in this lower part (ground to 2.0 km agl) for RH. Under all-weather conditions, the mean RH bias ranged from 3.0 to −4.0% with SDbias between 10 and 16.3% while under cloud-free conditions the bias ranged from 2.0 to −0.4% with SDbias from 0.5 to 13.3%. Above 2.0 km agl, the SDbias error increases considerably up to 4 km agl (up to −20%), and then decreases slightly above 7.0 km agl (up to−5%). In addition, IWV values from MWR were also compared with the values obtained from the integration of RS profiles, showing a better linear fit under cloudfree conditions (R2=0.96) than under all-weather conditions (R2=0.82). The mean bias under cloud-free conditions was −0.80 kg/m2 while for all-weather conditions it was −1.25 kg/m2. Thus, the SDbiasfor all the statistics (temperature, RH and IWV) of the comparison between MWR and RS presented higher values for allweather conditions than for cloud-free conditions ones. It points out that the presence of clouds is a key factor to take into account when MWR products are used. The second part of this work is devoted to a seasonal variability analysis over five years, leading us to characterize thermodynamically the troposphere over our site. This city atmosphere presents a clear seasonal cycle where temperature, ABLHmax and IWV increase from winter to summer and decrease in autumn, meanwhile RH decreases along the warmer seasons. This city presents cold winters (mean daily maximum temperature: 10.6 ± 1.1 °C) and dry/hot summers (mean daily maximum temperature of 28.8 ± 0.9 °C and mean daily maximum of surface RH up to 55.0 ± 6.0%) at surface (680m asl). Moreover, considering temporal trends, our study pointed out that only temperature and RH showed a linear increase in winters with a mean-rate of (0.5 ± 0.1) °C/year and (3.4 ± 1.7) %/year, respectively, from ground to 2.0 km agl, meanwhile IWV presented a linear increase of 1.0 kg·m−2/year in winters, 0.78 kg·m−2/year in summers and a linear decrease in autumns of −0.75 kg·m−2/year.

    Palavras-Chave: microwave radiation; atmospheres; seasonal variations; remote sensing; thermodynamic properties; boundary layers; radiometers


  • IPEN-DOC 27123

    MOREIRA, GREGORI de A. ; GUERRERO-RASCADO, JUAN L.; BRAVO-ARANDA, JUAN A.; FOYO-MORENO, INMACULADA; CAZORLA, ALBERTO; ALADOS, INMACULADA; LYAMANI, HASSAN; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ALADOS-ARBOLEDAS, LUCAS. Study of the planetary boundary layer height in an urban environment using a combination of microwave radiometer and ceilometer. Atmospheric Research, v. 240, p. 1-15, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.104932

    Abstract: The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is an important part of the atmosphere that is relevant in different atmospheric fields like pollutant dispersion, and weather forecasting. In this study, we analyze four and five-year datasets of measurements gathered with a ceilometer and a microwave radiometer to study the PBL structure respectively, in the mid-latitude urban area of Granada (Spain). The methodologies applied for the PBL Height (PBLH) detection (gradient method for ceilometer and the combination of parcel method and temperature gradient method for microwave radiometer) provided a description in agreement with the literature about the PBL structure under simple scenarios. Then, the PBLH behavior is characterized by a statistical study of the convective and stable situations, so that the PBLH was obtained from microwave radiometer measurements. The analysis of the PBLH statistical study shows some agreement with other PBLH studies such as daily pattern and yearly cycle, and the discrepancies were explained in terms of distinct latitudes, topography and climate conditions. Finally, it was performed a joint long-term analysis of the residual layer (RL) provided by ceilometer and the stable and convective layer heights determined by microwave radiometer, offering a complete picture of the PBL evolution by synergetic combination of remote sensing techniques. The PBL behavior has been used for explaining the daily cycle of Black Carbon (BC) concentration, used as tracer of the pollutants emissions associated to traffic.

    Palavras-Chave: boundary layers; urban areas; atmospheres; clouds; microwave radiation; radiometers; weather; cloud cover; remote sensing; climates; monitoring


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