Navegação Periódicos - Artigos por assunto "absorbed radiation doses"

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  • IPEN-DOC 19817

    MOURA, E.S.; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; SAKURABA, R.K.; GONCALVES, V.D.; CRUZ, J.C.; JUNIOR, D.K.; SOUZA, C.D.; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . Absorbed dose simulations in near-surface regions using high dose rate iridium-192 sources applied for brachytherapy. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 95, p. 299-301, 2014.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; beta particles; brachytherapy; cobalt 60; computerized simulation; depth dose distributions; iridium 192; mammary glands; monte carlo method; pmma; prostate; surfaces

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  • IPEN-DOC 23169

    GIMENEZ-ALVENTOSA, VINCENT; ANTUNES, PAULA C.G. ; VIJANDE, JAVIER; BALLESTER, FACUNDO; PEREZ-CALATAYUD, JOSE; ANDREO, PEDRO. Collision-kerma conversion between dose-to-tissue and dose-to-water by photon energy-fluence corrections in low-energy brachytherapy. Physics in Medicine & Biology, v. 62, n. 1, p. 146-164, 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa4f6a

    Abstract: The AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry formalism, introduced in 1995, has become a standard for brachytherapy dosimetry worldwide; it implicitly assumes that charged-particle equilibrium (CPE) exists for the determination of absorbed dose to water at different locations, except in the vicinity of the source capsule. Subsequent dosimetry developments, based on Monte Carlo calculations or analytical solutions of transport equations, do not rely on the CPE assumption and determine directly the dose to different tissues. At the time of relating dose to tissue and dose to water, or vice versa, it is usually assumed that the photon fluence in water and in tissues are practically identical, so that the absorbed dose in the two media can be related by their ratio of mass energy-absorption coefficients. In this work, an efficient way to correlate absorbed dose to water and absorbed dose to tissue in brachytherapy calculations at clinically relevant distances for low-energy photon emitting seeds is proposed. A correction is introduced that is based on the ratio of the water-to-tissue photon energy-fluences. State-of-the art Monte Carlo calculations are used to score photon fluence differential in energy in water and in various human tissues (muscle, adipose and bone), which in all cases include a realistic modelling of low-energy brachytherapy sources in order to benchmark the formalism proposed. The energy-fluence based corrections given in this work are able to correlate absorbed dose to tissue and absorbed dose to water with an accuracy better than 0.5% in the most critical cases (e.g. bone tissue).

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; accuracy; analytical solution; benchmarks; bone tissues; brachytherapy; charged particles; corrections; dosimetry; energy absorption; kerma; monte carlo method; muscles; radiation source implants; skeleton

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  • IPEN-DOC 25705

    CAMARGO, F.; GONCALVES, J.A.C. ; BUENO, C.C. . A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 7, n. 2A, p. 1-13, 2019. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v7i2A.681

    Abstract: In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a 60Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the diodes’ dosimetric responses evidenced that the best result was achieved with the DOFZ, which exhibited slightly higher sensitivity and stability than the STFZ devices. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications.

    Palavras-Chave: gamma dosimetry; gamma radiation; absorbed radiation doses; comparative evaluations; zone melting; cobalt 60; silicon diodes; radiation dose units; irradiation; dose rates; oxygen; radiation dose ranges

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  • IPEN-DOC 24329

    TEIXEIRA, BRUNA S. ; GARCIA, RAFAEL H.L. ; TAKINAMI, PATRICIA Y.I. ; DEL MASTRO, NELIDA L. . Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 142, p. 44-49, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2017.09.001

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation-sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a Co-60 irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm(-1) region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

    Palavras-Chave: starch; cassava; potatoes; gamma radiation; viscosity; fourier transform spectrometers; x-ray diffraction; infrared spectrometers; radiation effects; absorbed radiation doses; cobalt 60; dose rates; films; irradiation; visible radiation; x radiation

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  • IPEN-DOC 24674

    POLO, IVON O. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Determination of transmission factors in beta radiation beams. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 136, p. 82-86, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.02.010

    Abstract: In beta emitters, in order to evaluate the absorbed dose rate at different tissue depths, it is necessary to determine the transmission factors. In this work, the transmission factors determined in beta secondary standard radiation beams are presented. For this purpose, an extrapolation chamber was used. The results obtained were considered acceptable, and they are within the uncertainties in comparison with the values provided by the source calibration certificate. The maximum differences between the results obtained in this work and those from the calibration certificate were 3.3%, 3.8% and 5.9% for 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm sources respectively.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; dose rates; extrapolation chambers; krypton 85; promethium 147; radiations; strontium 90; transmission; yttrium 90

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  • IPEN-DOC 27369

    SILVA, C.R. ; PEREIRA, S.T. ; NAPOLITANO, C.M. ; SOMESSARI, E.S.R. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Development of a shielding device for radiotherapy of breast cancer-bearing mice. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 8, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2020. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v8i1A.1164

    Abstract: Breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of death worldwide. Currently, one of the standard treatments for breast cancer is radiation therapy (RT). On the other hand, mouse models have been used in pre-clinical studies for breast cancer RT, requiring dedicated shielding to exposure the breast region. In this work, we considered the values of the lead attenuation coefficient and the material tenth reducing layer for 60Co gamma radiation and developed a lead shielding device for breast cancer-bearing mice to be exposed to localized breast RT. Five-kg of lead were heated to of 340ºC and inserted into an aluminum mold previously adjusted to the dimensions of the device. After solidification, the device was shaped into a cylinder with dimension of 14 x 15 x 7 cm (height x width x thickness, respectively). A round cut-out for breast exposure of 1 cm in diameter was made at 5 cm from the basis of the device. For shielding device validation, we performed calibrations to establish a dose of 10 Gy to the target volume. Fifteen CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were distributed inside the conical tube to mimic the mouse position inside the shielding. The shielding device was placed at a fixed distance of 10 cm from the target for optimal exposure time. After irradiation, the dosimeters were read using a thermoluminescent reader. According to our results, we were able to develop a body-shielding device that assured the required dose for RT of breast cancer in mice.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; cobalt 60; gamma radiation; ionizing radiations; lead; mammary glands; mice; neoplasms; radiotherapy; shielding; thermoluminescent dosemeters

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  • IPEN-DOC 27248

    LIMA, B.L.; ALMEIDA, J.S. ; POTIENS, M.P.A. ; PELISSONI, R.A.; SAPIENZA, M.T.; BUCHPIGUEL, C.A.; WILLEGAIGNON, J.. Evaluation of biokinetics and dosimetry in [131I]-NaI therapies: quantification of whole body images versus thigh region. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 8, n. 1A, p. 1-13, 2020. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v8i1A.1082

    Abstract: This study evaluate the possibility of restricting the current image quantification (ROI) from the whole body to a small area in thigh for therapy planning. Whole body planar images were obtained from 13 patients after the administration of 131I tracer dose, and OLINDA/EXM software was used for internal dose calculation. The average value of half-life time was 16.46 ± 3.45 h in whole body quantification, compared to 14.07 ± 2.89 h in thigh. The average absorbed dose in bone marrow from the whole body quantification was 0.0519 ± 0.0250 mGy/MBq, whilst the absorbed dose provided by the thigh quantification represented 87% of this value, with up to 95% in time reduction for dose calculation. Such doses become similar when a correction factor of 1.13 is applied in thigh dose results (p=0.67), which is within the variation coefficient assumed to internal dosimetry (20%). This study shows the possibility of a significant time reduction in internal dose calculation applied to therapy planning.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; bone marrow; dosimetry; iodine 131; limbs; neoplasms; patients; planning; radionuclide kinetics; single photon emission computed tomography; thyroid; whole-body irradiation

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  • IPEN-DOC 24241

    OLIVEIRA, L.N. ; VIEIRA, S.L.; SCHIMIDT, F.; ANTONIO, P.L. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Evaluation of polybutadiene rubbers using FTIR spectra. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 05, n. 02, p. 01-07, 2017. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v5i2.198

    Abstract: Radiation dosimetry for medical and industrial purposes has increasingly evolved over the last few decades with the introduction of various new detectors. Depending on the properties exhibited for radiation dosimetry, some detectors present their applications in a specific area. From a physics point of view, an ideal dosimeter should be able to measure absorbed dose. In this work, synthetic materials based on polybutadiene rubbers (PBR) were proposed as a new class of radiation detectors. The influence of radiation dose on their properties has been investigated for application in radiation dosimetry. The rubber samples were exposed to absorbed doses from 10 Gy up to 250 Gy, using a 60Co Gamma Cell-220 system. Their responses were carried out with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer to investigate the presence of absorbance peaks. The results suggested the existence of a relationship between the absorbed doses and the absorbance peaks associated with stretching (1300-1200 cm-1), deformation (1450-1340 cm-1) and vibration (1500-1400 cm-1) processes in the material.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; butadiene; cobalt 60; dosimetry; fourier transformation; infrared spectra; peaks; radiation detectors; radiation dose ranges; radiation protection; rubbers

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  • IPEN-DOC 25138

    SILVA, J.O.; NONATO, F.B.C.; SAMPAIO, F.G.A.; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Evaluation of some dosimetric properties of a dedicated plane parallel ionization chamber for radiotherapy electron beams. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 6, n. 3, p. 1-13, 2018. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v6i3.547

    Abstract: Ionization chambers are the reference detectors for electron beam dosimetry. In this paper a dedicated radiotherapy plane parallel ionization chamber manufactured with low cost materials is presented for dosimetry in electron beams. The ionization chamber tested has a sensitive volume of 0.4 cm³. Both the collecting electrode and the guard ring were painted with a homogeneous mixture of nail polish and graphite. The dedicated ionization chamber presented a linear response with electron absorbed dose within the range 0.5 to 8.0 Gy, an increase of its response with the field size increasing, an angular dependence within ±5°, as recommended by international standards, and a polarity effect of 0.78% according to the field size. Considering the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the plane parallel ionization chamber tested in this work presents potential use for elec - tron beam dosimetry in clinical routine.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; dosimetry; electron beams; ionization chambers; performance; phantoms; planning; radiotherapy

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  • IPEN-DOC 25198

    BRANT, ANTONIO J.C. ; NAIME, NATALIA ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. ; PONCE, PATRICIA . Influence of ionizing radiation on biodegradable foam trays for food packaging obtained from irradiated cassava starch. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, v. 61, n. e18160520, 2018. DOI: 10.1590/1678-4324-2018160520

    Abstract: Biodegradable polymers, such as starch, cellulose, and derivatives thereof, are being studied to produce innovative packaging in the most diverse shapes (films, bags, trays, bottles, etc.) to attend this current market trend. The aim of this work was to produce foam trays from cassava starch for food packaging via extrusion followed by thermoforming process. Their formulations were based on unirradiated and γ-irradiated starches at diverse radiation absorbed doses (in kGy) in order to evaluate the influence of the irradiated starches on the physical properties of the trays. Water absorption results showed an irregular increase with the increase of the absorbed dose ( for example, 26.32% and 39.84% for the trays based on unirradiated starch 0 kGy and 1:1 (w/w) mixture of starches 0 kGy and 100.0 kGy, respectively). Other physicochemical properties were evaluated from the starches utilized and the trays obtained. Aerobic biodegradation of the foams by mass loss also was checked in soil burial test.

    Palavras-Chave: ionizing radiations; gamma radiation; cassava; starch; packaging; biodegradation; compression strength; physical properties; hot pressing; foams; absorbed radiation doses; extrusion; flexibility

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  • IPEN-DOC 24358

    OLIVEIRA, LUCAS N. de ; SCHIMIDT, FERNANDO; ANTONIO, PATRICIA L. ; ANDREETA, MARCELLO R.B.; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Lithium diborate glass for high-dose dosimetry using the UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry techniques. Radiation Measurements, v. 106, n. SI, p. 225-228, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2017.05.015

    Abstract: Glass has been used in radiation dosimetry mainly for its linear response with absorbed dose, low cost and easy evaluation. The lithium diborate glasses were irradiated with doses from 200 Gy to 10 kGy using a60Co Gamma-Cell system 220 and evaluated with the UV-Vis and FTIR techniques. The results indicate that the samples present lithium diborate, linearity with the absorbed dose, usefulness as YES/NO radiation detectors (due to their color change), low fading for time periods up to 60 days and a good response reproducibility. In conclusion, the lithium diborate glass may be promising for dosimetry in high doses of radiation.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; dosemeters; dosimetry; evaluation; fourier transformation; glass; infrared spectra; irradiation; lithium; radiation detectors; spectrophotometry

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  • IPEN-DOC 26468

    SOUZA, LUIZA F.; SANTOS, WILLIAM S. ; BELINATO, WALMIR; SILVA, ROGERIO M.V.; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. ; SOUZA, DIVANIZIA N.. Mass energy absorption coefficients and energy responses of magnesium tetraborate dosimeters for 0.02 MeV to 20 MeV photons using Monte Carlo simulations. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 148, p. 232-239, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.015

    Abstract: Thermoluminescence dosimeters containing boron, such as magnesium tetraborate (MgB4O7), are of interest because of their very high sensitivity, near tissue-equivalent absorption coefficients, low cost, easy handling, and very large linearity range for absorbed dose. Another important parameter that should be considered when working with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is the mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ), which is a close approximation to the energy available for production of chemical, biological and other effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, therefore important in estimating dose in medical and health physics. In this study the mass energy absorption coefficients and energy responses of undoped and some doped magnesium tetraborates were calculated by Monte Carlo N-particle transport code for a range of photon energies between 20 keV and 20 MeV. The calculated parameters for MgB4O7, MgB4O7:Dy and MgB4O7:Dy,Li were evaluated in comparison with standard TLDs as Al2O3:C and TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) and ICRU tissue data. The influence of the dopant concentration in the MgB4O7 matrix on the energy dependence of TLD was also investigated. The analyses indicated a good agreement between the simulations and theoretical calculations. The μen/ρ and energy dependence of the materials are higher in the low energy range (E < 100 keV), which is related to the high probability of interaction between radiation and matter due to photoelectric absorption. With regard to the influence of dysprosium concentration in the MgB4O7 matrix an increase in the energy dependence of MgB4O7 for higher concentrations of dopants was observed in the low energy range.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; borates; boron; computerized simulation; concentration ratio; doped materials; energy absorption; energy dependence; icru; ionizing radiations; kev range; lithium fluorides; magnesium; magnesium compounds; mev range; monte carlo method; radiation protection; sensitivity; thermoluminescent dosemeters

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  • IPEN-DOC 25131

    POLO, IVON O. ; SANTOS, WILLIAM S. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Modelling the absorbed dose rate of the beta standard BSS2 147Pm source. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 140, p. 83-86, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.06.015

    Abstract: The dosimetric measurements of 147Pm beta radiation beams have limitations due to their low energy, low dose rate, great dispersion and attenuation in air or tissue. In this work, the Monte Carlo model was developed for a 147Pm absorbed dose rate determination. This model consists of an extrapolation chamber and a 147Pm beta radiation source. Moreover, the absorbed dose rate was determined by experimental measurements and the MCNP Monte Carlo code was used. The relative number of particles that crossed the radioactive source window and the particles that crossed the extrapolation chamber entrance window were determined. The source fluence spectrum was also determined. The results of the simulation and the experimental calculations are in agreement with the absorbed dose rate from the PTB calibration certificate. The results obtained are considered acceptable, and they agree within the uncertainties. The difference between the experimental result and that from the Monte Carlo model, compared to that from the calibration certificate, was only 0.8% in both cases.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; beta sources; dose rates; extrapolation chambers; monte carlo method; promethium 147; simulation

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  • IPEN-DOC 23041

    HAJJ, T.M.E.; SILVA, P.S.C. ; GANDOLLA, M.P.A.; DANTAS, G.A.S.A.; SANTOS, A. ; DELBONI JUNIOR, H.. Radiological hazard indices and elemental composition of Brazilian and Swiss ornamental rocks. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 5, n. 2, p. 01-29, 2017. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v5i2.269

    Abstract: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the radiological risk index of ornamental rocks sold both in Brazil and Europe and to correlate its radioactive content with their chemical composition. The 238U, 232Th and 40K mean values were 62 ± 65, 122 ± 111, 1126 ± 516 Bq kg-1 for Brazilian and 93 ± 59, 70 ± 67 and 1005 ± 780 Bq kg-1 for Swiss samples, respectively. The radiological index: radium equivalent, external hazard index, absorbed dose rate in air, annual gonadal equivalent dose, annual effective dose equivalent and excess lifetime cancer risk for Brazilian and Swiss samples were calculated. The main contribution for the radiological indices observed was the radionuclide 232Th, which is associated with REE, Br, Hf, Na, Rb, Sb and Zr in the rock matrix.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; granites; potassium 40; radiation hazards; risk assessment; rocks; thorium 232; thorium 238; uranium 238; brazil; switzerland

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  • IPEN-DOC 21312

    SOARES, MARIA R.; BATISTA, WILSON O.; ANTONIO, PATRICIA de L. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. ; MAIA, ANA F.. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 100, p. 21-26, 2015.

    Palavras-Chave: computerized tomography; dentistry; images; radiation doses; absorbed radiation doses; phantoms; dosemeters

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  • IPEN-DOC 20293

    ANTONIO, PATRICIA L. ; PINTO, TERESA C.N.O. ; SILVA, ROGERIO M.V.; SOUZA, DIVANIZIA N.; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . The use of the TL and OSL phenomena for determination of absorbed dose rates of sup(90)Sr+sup(90)S sources by a postal method. Radiation Measurements, v. 71, p. 305-309, 2014.

    Palavras-Chave: thermoluminescence; thermoluminescent dosimetry; calcium sulfates; dysprosium; absorbed radiation doses; strontium 90; yttrium 90; calibration; calibration standards; radiation protection

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  • IPEN-DOC 23099

    POLO, IVON O. ; SANTOS, WILLIAM S. ; ANTONIO, PATRICIA de L. ; CALDAS, LINDA V.E. . Variance reduction technique in a beta radiation beam using an extrapolation chamber. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 128, p. 154-157, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.06.017

    Abstract: This paper aims to show how the variance reduction technique “Geometry splitting/Russian roulette” improves the statistical error and reduces uncertainties in the determination of the absorbed dose rate in tissue using an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation. The results show that the use of this technique can increase the number of events in the chamber cavity leading to a closer approximation of simulation result with the physical problem. There was a good agreement among the experimental measurements, the certificate of manufacture and the simulation results of the absorbed dose rate values and uncertainties. The absorbed dose rate variation coefficient using the variance reduction technique “Geometry splitting/Russian roulette” was 2.85%.

    Palavras-Chave: absorbed radiation doses; dose rates; extrapolation chambers; monte carlo method; radiation sources

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