O Repositório Digital do IPEN é um equipamento institucional de acesso aberto, criado com o objetivo de reunir, preservar, disponibilizar e conferir maior visibilidade à Produção Científica publicada pelo Instituto, desde sua criação em 1956.

Operando, inicialmente como uma base de dados referencial o Repositório foi disponibilizado na atual plataforma, em junho de 2015. No Repositório está disponível o acesso ao conteúdo digital de artigos de periódicos, eventos, nacionais e internacionais, livros, capítulos, dissertações, teses e relatórios técnicos. [Saiba mais]


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  • IPEN-DOC 23080

    MIRANDA, CAIO da S. ; IZIDORO, JULIANA de C. ; GUILHEN, SABINE N. ; FUNGARO, DENISE A. . Avaliação da remoção de elementos metálicos tóxicos presentes no efluente do aterro de cinzas de carvão mineral usando zeólita sintética. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CARVAO MINERAL, 5., 29 de maio - 01 de junho, 2017, Criciúma, SC. Anais... 2017.

    Abstract: A produção de energia elétrica usando carvão mineral gera diferentes tipos de resíduos que precisam ser dispostos adequadamente para não causar impactos ambientais significativos. Diversas técnicas têm sido adotadas para que haja a redução da lixiviação dos elementos metálicos tóxicos presentes nas cinzas. O preparo do aterro de cinzas usando camadas de calcário e argila foi usado como alternativa por uma usina termelétrica a carvão localizada na região sul do Brasil. A utilização das cinzas leves para a síntese de materiais de valor agregado, por outro lado, também pode amenizar esse problema pelo fato de reduzir a quantidade de resíduo a ser disposto. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a remoção de elementos tóxicos presentes no efluente de um aterro de cinzas usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir dos próprios resíduos de combustão do carvão. Os ensaios foram realizados em batelada empregando-se 10 g de zeólita/L e 20 g de zeólita/L. A comparação entre as concentrações dos elementos do efluente antes e após o contato com a zeólita, bem como as análises de pH e condutividade foram realizadas. Os resultados indicaram que cromo e arsênio foram os principais elementos tóxicos presentes no efluente do aterro de cinzas que apresentavam concentração acima do permitido pela legislação ambiental. Após o tratamento com a zeólita, a concentração de arsênio no efluente reduziu de 1,09 mg/L para 0,275 mg/L na dose de 10 g/L e ficou abaixo do limite de detecção do equipamento (< 0,01) na dose de 20 g/L. Para o cromo, não houve alteração da concentração, enquanto uma elevação dos valores de pH e condutividade do efluente foi observada. O presente estudo sugere que a zeólita de cinzas leves de carvão podem ser usadas como forma de tratamento de efluentes contendo elevados níveis de arsênio.


  • IPEN-DOC 23068

    ASFORA, V.K.; ANTONIO, P.L. ; BARROS, V.S.M. de; GONCALVES, J.A.C. ; YAMATO, M.E.; BUENO, C.C. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. ; KHOURY, H.J.. Evaluation of TL and OSL response of CaF2:Tm for electron beams dosimetry in radiation processing. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 429-429.

    Abstract: An increasing number of pytosanitary irradiations using electron beams has encouraged the development of surface dosimetry systems to cope with both lowand intermediate absorbed doses and dose rates. Besides thewell-established reference and routine dosimeters, ranging from alanine to radiochromic films, there is an interest in dosimeters based on thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) effects. In this context, the aim of this paper is to study the TL and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) response of the calcium fluoride dosimeter doped with thulium (CaF2:Tm) produced via combustion synthesis (CS) by the Nuclear Energy Department of Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. The pellets with 6mmin diameter and 1mmthicknesswere obtained by pressing the powder using 10% PTFE as binder material. The individual TL and OSL sensitivities of the dosimeters of the batch were previously evaluated and a group of 50 pellets with a standard deviation of 6:8% was selected to be used in this study. After that, the performance of these dosimeters to electron beams with 1:5 MeV from a DC 1500/25/4 – JOB 188 Accelerator at the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP was investigated. For each dose, four pellets of CaF2:Tm, together with four pellets of alanine were irradiated with doses from 0:5 kGy up to 10 kGy. The TL and OSL readings were carried out after a preheating at 100 C during 15 min using a Riso TL/OSL reader, model DA-20. The TL measurements were taken with a heating rate of 2 C/s, in the range from 50 C to 350 C. The OSL readings were carried out with infrared stimulation with optical power attenuated to 20% during 240 s. These readings were thermally assisted at 150 C. Residual thermoluminescent glow curves for IRSL were recorded after stimulation times. The reproducibility and stability of the TL and IRSL responses were also evaluated, as well as the dependence with different dose rates. The results showed that the main TL peak of the glow is in the region of 200 C and it was observed that the IRSL curve of the dosimeters presents a fast and a slow decaying IRSL signals. The TL and OSL dose response curves were fitted by a second order polynomial function with correlation coefficients of 0:97 and 0:99, respectively. The results indicated the possibility of the application of CaF2:Tm for electron beam dosimetry in radiation processing.


  • IPEN-DOC 23067

    FERREIRA, M.S.; MOURA, E. ; GERALDO, A. . Correlation of traditional and one-step irradiation process for chitosan production from charybdis hellerii crab shells. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 409-409.

    Abstract: Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from chitin’s molecule deacetylation, which is the main composition of certain fungi species and crustaceans and insects exoskeleton. The amino groups present in chitosan give it important biological properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, activity/immunological effects and antibacterial healing. The deacetylation of chitin is an aggressive process, which reaction processes in 6 to 8 h under hot concentrated alkali solution. In this work, Charybdis hellerii crab shells were fragmented and pretreated for chitosan production and each conversion step, from in natura material pretreatment to final chitosan,were investigated in detail. Itwas observed dose and dose rate applied as in natura as pretreated chitin influence neither pretreatment process nor chitin deacetylation step; at 20 kGy (from or electron beam sources), the conversion process was performed in 60 minutes. The obtained chitosan presented low weight and deacetylation degree compared to standard chitosan, considering specific irradiation conditions.


  • IPEN-DOC 23066

    KLINGBEIL, M. ; ERNESTO, J.; LOPES, P.; ROCHA, D.; OLIVEIRA, J.; VARCA, G.H.C. ; SILVA, C.; STEFFENS, D.; LUGAO, A.B. ; MATHOR, M. . Development of advanced scaffolds and polymeric systems for improved cell and tissue growth. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 381-381.

    Abstract: The recent concern related to skin compromised patients, apart from the nature of the condition itself, such as wounds, chronic ulcers, or burns among others, has triggered and highlighted the importance of the development of artificial skins available in allogeneic donor tissue banks and/or scaffolds, composed by a wide variety of biocompatible, biodegradable and bioactive biomaterials. Within this context, tissue engineering has been in expansion as an attempt to overcome difficulties faced in such situations. The application of scaffolds, produced or not by nanotechnology, in the skin of a patient induces cells to proliferate and get organized on extracellular matrix regenerating tissue. Ionizing radiation is a particularly useful technology capable of promoting sterilization and cross-linking of the scaffold structure thus offering several possibilities for the development of advanced systems suitable for cell growth. Taking into account the variety of clinical applications of tissue engineering, the aim of this study was to investigate by means of histological tests, chemistries and non-destructive tests, the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells grown in vitro in conjunction with different frameworks in order to understand how the mesenchymal stem cells behave in different niches. Among those collagen, PVA, chitosan, PDLLA scaffolds were the systems of choice and -irradiation was applied for sterilization of the systems, as well as cross-linking for the PVA based scaffold. Thus this work allowed the achievement of dermo-epidermic matrices populated by epidermal cells that make up the skin and will contribute to the development of a more robust and useful material to be used in several treatments.


  • IPEN-DOC 23065

    GERALDO, A. ; MOURA, E. ; GABRIEL, L.. Obtention and characterization of gamma-irradiated recycled HDPE/EPDDM blends. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 375-375.

    Abstract: Elastomeric materials have specific properties that allow the development and use of a variety of products. The application of elastomeric compounds in the automotive industry has increased considerably; due this, high volume of parts are disposal and among these, thermosetting materials, that are not easily recyclable. High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a commodity material with a wide range of uses in the industry. What make this polymeric material so interesting to the market are its unique properties such as good conformability, high resistance to heat and chemicals, and a relative low cost. Another characteristic for this material is its good reprocessability, which is the ability of being recycled many times. Thus, the environmental impact of both materials is evident, thereby promoting essential damage. In the present work the HDPE matrix has been recycled four times from original substrate and mixed to EPDM rubber not vulcanized in proportions from 1% to 10%. The -irradiation process was applied at 50 kGy and 100 kGy in both original and recycled blend samples; in this way, mechanical properties and morphologic characteristics were evaluated. The results shown EPDM in quantities of 1% bring high tensile strength and yield strength to recycled non-irradiated blends compared to higher concentration of 10%, that present high impact resistance. Irradiation process applied to these samples carried an increase in these parameters and the recycled blends presented higher tensile strength values than pristine HDPE samples. Blends are homogeneous and presented no specific morphologic aspects that suggests HDPE and EPDM are miscible and compatible components; crystallinity is higher in low EPDM content blend and at a dose value of 50 kGy the crystallinity reached the maximum value of 79:5% compared to 72:2% for pristine HDPE. These results suggest irradiated blends formed by recycled HDPE with 1% of EPDM present high viability for industrial use due its high mechanical performance compared its low production cost.


  • IPEN-DOC 23064

    CARDOSO, J. ; GERALDO, A. ; MOURA, E. . Recycled HDPE/Vulcanized EPDM mixtures obtained by irradiation processes. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 366-366.

    Abstract: Recycling polymers process includes techniques that present solutions to the problem of plastic waste in the environment. This process is important to improve the economic sector in many countries, like cooperative societies. Primary recycling is related to the reuse of plastic waste directly from the production site in the industry, that carry on some advantages besides the low cost involved in the reuse of this waste: the raw material is free from dust of many kinds (metals, different powders and plastics). Among this polymeric waste, packaging dominates this scenario, covering 62:2% of the total, where polyolefins account more than 50% of the packaging production. In the same way, the recovering of sulfur-cured rubber contribute to release the environment from this almost non-degradable rubber. The goal of this work is to produce an alternative recycled product composed by mixing twenty-times reused HDPE (by primary recycling process) with vulcanized EPDM rubber. The twenty-times recycled thermoplastic was reached by extrusion, which intention was to simulate a polyolefin like a scrap. The EPDM rubber was fragmented and incorporated to the thermoplastic matrix in proportions of 1% and 5% w/w, from both kinds of rubber, like received and after a thermal treatment. One of the thermal treatment of rubber consisted in an oven ageing in the temperature of 100 C; the other was a simultaneous heating under irradiation process by electron beam at 130 C and at 100 kGy absorbed dose (at 22:4 kGy/s dose rate). The final mixture was obtained by injection molding and specimens from injection process were -irradiated at 50 kGy and at 100 kGy. Mechanical analysis of stress-strain, infrared FTIR spectra and thermogravimetric degradation were performed to evaluate the final product. The obtained product showed heterogeneous; the rubber without thermal treatment was better incorporated to thermoplastic matrix and the irradiated samples present mechanical resistance that suggests this new material intended to be viable to industrial use.


  • IPEN-DOC 23063

    VASQUEZ, P. ; KODAMA, Y. ; ORLANDO, R.J.; GARCIA, R.H.L. ; OTUBO, L. ; SANTOS, P.S.. Kinetics of free radicals decay reactions in cellulosic-based heritage materials disinfected by gamma-radiation. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 355-355.

    Abstract: Disinfection by -radiation of cultural heritage artefacts and archived materials has been successfully applied in recent years. Radiation processing used for cultural heritage disinfection has several advantages when compared to conventional methods (e.g., chemical gases) mainly related to the safety, efficiency, reliability, capacity, process time and safety for users and the environment. However, more research is still required to study undesirable effects (side-effects) which may appear in sensitive materials as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. Some conservators and restorers are frequently worried about possible long-term effects in irradiated materials (post-effects). During the irradiation process, some energetic and unstable chemical species called free radicals appear in the treated matter. They disappear in different ways, interacting either with each other or with the artefact compounds thus becoming responsible for disinfestation and irradiation side-effects. The kinetics of free radical decay reactions depend on the absorbed dose, the properties of irradiated material among others. In this study, contemporary paper samples were irradiated using -radiation from 60Co with different absorbed doses. The absorbed dose range was chosen taking into account the effective values to promote insect eradication, fungal disinfection and sterilization. The decay kinetics of the cellulose free radicals induced by irradiation was analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance. Several spectra were obtained at room temperature for each applied absorbed dose immediately after irradiation as reference measurements. To understand the free radical decay process, additional spectra were obtained for different decay times up to almost 50 days after irradiation. De-noising treatment of the original obtained spectra signals were performed using wavelets. Free radical populations, proportional to the spin concentrations, were found by integrating the electron paramagnetic resonance signal curves. Comparison of spectra was done by normalizing the calculated area corresponding to cellulose spin concentration, taking first measurement after irradiation as 100%. Further analyses and calculations were made to study the half-life and the kinetics models of the free radicals created. X-ray diffraction was carried out to identify crystalline phases and the effect of ionizing radiation on the crystalline structure of cellulose in paper. Scanning electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry were performed to analyze structure modifications induced by ionizing radiation, identifying cellulose fibre agglomeration zones and to quantify chemical elements. Results show that for the sterilization dose, 80% of the cellulose free radicals induced by ionizing radiation disappear in almost 40 days and for disinfection dose in 8 days. It can be concluded that if no modifications (side-effects) appear in the irradiated material after the radical decay time, the material will stay stable for the remaining lifetime. Results showed that the proposed method using electron paramagnetic resonance is suitably to study the behaviour of radicals on cellulosic-based cultural heritage materials.


  • IPEN-DOC 23062

    SOUZA, D.; SOUZA, L.; ANTONIO, P.L. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Dosimetric properties of MgB4O7:Ce and MgB4O7:Ce, Li for thermoluminescence dosimetry applications. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 351-351.

    Abstract: Thermoluminescent dosimetry is known as a well-established technique for monitoring radiation dose in medical practices. Some most used thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are: LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100), CaF:Mn, CaSO4:Dy, Li2B4O7, and aluminophosphate glasses. Recent studies have demonstrated that borates can be very useful for TL dosimetry because their compounds may be more sensitive to radiation than the commercial dosimeters as TLD-100. Furthermore, compounds with 10B allow the detection of thermal neutrons (E   0:25 eV). They also have other good dosimetric properties, such as linear dose response over a large absorbed dose range, effective atomic number close to that of human tissue, and a simple TL emission curve with a single peak. However, there is not much discussion about preparation routes for dosimeters based on borates and on the structure of their compounds. Among these, we examined thermoluminescence properties of magnesium tetraborate doped with cerium (MgB4O7:Ce) and co-doped with lithium (MgB4O7:Ce,Li). Some important TL properties were investigated such as: dose response for and , fading and kinetic parameters of TL curves. To study TL response, the material was investigated in pellet format (3 mm diameter) that were irradiated with sources of particles (90Sr/90Y) and -rays (60Co) with different absorbed doses. The TL responses were measured using an TL/OSL reader (TL/OSL reader Riso). The results showed that the materials have great potential for TLD dosimetry, presenting low fading of TL signal (  3% in one month) and prevalence of first-order TL peak. The dose response curves also show that saturation occurs at higher doses (up to 1000 Gy) and the kinetic parameter shows TL curve follow kinetic of first order.


  • IPEN-DOC 23061

    GENEZINI, F. ; CALVO, W.A.P. ; FERNANDO, A.J. ; MARRA NETO, A. ; AOKI, P.E. . Industrial applications of the IEA-R1 research reactor in Brazil. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 255-255.

    Abstract: The IEA-R1 is an open pool type research reactor located at theNuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP) site and achieved its first criticality on September 16, 1957. IEA-R1 is the largest research reactor in operation in Brazil, with a core composed of 24 fuel elements with 20% enriched uranium silicide, 4 control rods (Ag􀀀In􀀀Cd) and many irradiation positions supplying thermal neutron fluxes ranging from 1012 to 1014 n/cm2s. Currently, IEA-R1 is operating at 4:5 MW on an 8 hours per day and 4 days per week cycle. The IEA-R1 reactor is a multipurpose facility used for basic and applied research in nuclear and for the production of radioisotopes for industry and nuclear medicine. For industry, IEA-R1 produces radiotracers and sealed radioactive sources (60Co and 192Ir) for industrial -radiography, as well as doped silicon by neutron transmutation. For radiotracer production, IEA-R1 has been working with a compact local staff (3 persons) and is assisted by the Radiation Technology Centre at IPEN-CNEN/SP, in which there are installed hot cells for high activity handling. Most of the radiotracers produced at IEA-R1 are irradiated in a quartz bulb inside an aluminium vessel; the only exception is for 41Ar production, where a special device that doesn’t require a hot cell is used. These are the radiotracers produced at IEA-R1 and their applications in industry and environment: • 203Hg: determination of the mercury mass immobilized in electrolytic cells from soda and chlorine producing industries (46:6 days and 0:28 MeV). • 131I and 82Br: flow rate measurement and residence time distribution (RTD) studies in rivers, lakes and wastewater treatment plants (8:04 days and 36 h, 0:36 MeV and 0:55 MeV, respectively). • 192Ir: environmental studies, in the form of a premixed sand (glass powder plus activated iridium), to study drag sediment in river (73:8 days and 0:32 MeV). • 198Au: representative study, in real conditions, of the impact of great civil works for the construction of important artificial harbour, airport and hydroelectric reservoir, by labelling sand to be removed from the bottom with emulsion of gold (2:7 days and 0:41 MeV). • 41Ar and 79Kr: study the gas phase of fluidized cracking catalytic plants (110 min and 35 h, 1:29 MeV and 0:51 MeV, respectively). • 140La: study the solid phase (catalysts) of fluidized cracking catalytic plants in petroleum refineries (40 h, 1:16 MeV). For doped silicon production, a device that affords the best axial and radial uniformity of the neutron dose is used. These doping uniformities as well as the doping accuracy are determined using resistivity values, showing an excellent doping quality. A recent improvement was the development of an irradiation system to produce gaseous radioisotopes (41Ar and 79Kr), delivering the activated gases directly into the shield bottle without handling and dose exposition for operators, instead of via small quantities (batches), through quartz ampoules containing these noble gases.


  • IPEN-DOC 23060

    NUNES, M.G. ; VILLANI, D. ; RODRIGUES, L.L. de C.. CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Ce,Eu intrinsic efficiencies dependence on ionizing radiation type and quality. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 428-428.

    Abstract: The dependence of a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter response to the type and quality of radiation is a key issue that is being tackled worldwide by the development of new dosimetric materials associated with this technique. In this context, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the intrinsic efficiency of CaSO4:Dy, considered as the standard material, and CaSO4:Ce,Eu, a newly developed TL material, for different ionizing radiation types and energies. To do so, a batch of 55 dosimeters of each material was selected according to their non-irradiated TL readout and intrinsic efficiency to the 60Co -radiation on air and electronic equilibrium conditions and then divided into eleven sets of five dosimeters, one of the sets being kept as the control set to evaluate the non-irradiated TL signal while the ten remaining sets were irradiated, again in air and electronic equilibrium conditions, with doses ranging from 0:1 mGy to 10 Gy in secondary standards 60Co and 137Cs - radiation sources, RQR, RQA and RQT ISO/IEC 61267 series and N ISO 4037 series X-ray beams, always including the reference quality for the radiation beam series, and tertiary standard collimated electron beams with effective energies from 4 MeV to 20 MeV. AThermo (Harshaw) 3500 thermoluminescent reader was used to evaluate TL readouts 24 h after the irradiation and the obtained glow curves were exported in the ASC format through WinREMS TL reader controller associated software. Individual peak intensity, integrated response, peak to peak intensity ratio, calibration curves and intrinsic efficiency, provided that all dosimeters are 0:8 mm thick pellets of 6:0 mm of diameter containing 16:67 mg of TL material, were calculated with the aid of SciLab 5.5.2 software, also used to graphically explore the behaviour of CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Ce,Eu intrinsic efficiencies with the radiation type or the radiation quality. As expected from literature, CaSO4:Dy intrinsic efficiency presented a dependence of up to 30% with radiation type or quality while CaSO4:Ce,Eu intrinsic efficiency varied by 200% with radiation quality. Despite this huge dependence, the CaSO4:Ce,Eu peak I to peak II intensity ratio remains stable with the radiation type and varies by 5% from one radiation type to another, so that this newly developed TL material can be used as a dosimeter capable of determining, in non-mixed radiation fields and after an adequate and rigorous calibration, both radiation type and quality besides the dose.


  • IPEN-DOC 23059

    MESQUITA, C.H. de ; VELO, A. ; SOUSA CARVALHO, D.V.; RIBEIRO, L.D.J.; HAMADA, M. . Holdup analysis of a bubble column using an industrial fourth generation like gamma-Ray tomography. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 194-194.

    Abstract: This work has been performed using the fourth-generation-like industrial computed tomography developed at the IPEN, constituted with 70 NaI(Tl) 25:4 mm 50:8 mm (diameter length) and a bubble column for industrial process was evaluated. The column is a Perspex glass cylindrical tube of 80 mm internal diameter, 100 mm external diameter and 1400 mm height constituted the following parts: liquid circuit (water), a gas circuit (4 `{min) bubbled into a system containing two limiting holes of 4 mm and 2 mm, located at 65 mm from the centre of the column each one in opposite side. -ray tomography experiments were carried out, using this simulator column both empty and filled with water plus gas bubbling. In this work the scanner was set for 5 views and 14 projections each. The resulting images describe the liquid or gas phase holdup distributions for bubbles generated in a hole of 4 mm and 2 mm diameters located at 15 mm of the column wall in a opposite side, respectively. It was established that the newly developed fourth-generation-like fan-beam arrangement -scanner unit has a good temporal resolution acceptable given the size of the column used in this study and capable to infer the relative proportional of gas and liquid proportion in the column.


  • IPEN-DOC 23058

    CALVO, W.A.P. ; DUARTE, C.L. ; SOMESSARI, S.L. ; SPRENGER, F.E. ; COSTA, F.E. ; FEHER, A. ; SALVADOR, P.A.V. ; OMI, N.M. ; SILVA, L.G.A. ; LAINETTI, F.F.; RELA, P.R. ; SAMPA, M.H.O. . Multipurpose gamma-irradiator and mobile unit with an electron beam accelerator developed in Brazil. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 176-176.

    Abstract: Radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide in the fields of water treatment, advanced materials, nanotechnology, medicine, tissue engineering, disinfestations and disinfection of books and documents, processes and industrial production and natural resources, among others. The Radiation Technology Centre (RTC) of the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN), of CNEN, Brazil, developed a small size continuous run and multipurpose industrial - irradiator with a revolutionary design and national technology to be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers and contract service companies that need economical and logistical in-house irradiation system alternatives. It will be useful for supporting the local scientific community for product and process development using -radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, and for training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers. The technology developed for this facility consists of a continuous tote box transport system comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products in and out of the irradiator utilizes a revolving door integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources with a maximum 60Co capacity of 37 PBq (tote boxes, Category IV, wet storage). The performed qualification programme of this multipurpose irradiator was based on AAMI/ISO 11137 standard. The irradiator currently holds 7:4 PBq (200 kCi) of 60Co. For irradiator dose optimization, the source distribution was done using the Cadgamma software. The poly-methylmetacrylate (PMMA) dosimeter system was used for irradiator dose mapping. The economic analysis and performance, concerning to the dose uniformity and 60Co utilization efficiency were calculated and compared with other commercial irradiators available in the market. The RTC is involved in establishing a mobile electron beam accelerator unit to treat industrial effluents for reuse purposes. The mobile unit will be equipped with an electron beam accelerator (0:7 MeV, 20 kW) with safety requirements (BSS, IAEA and CNEN Safety Standards), and can be used for effluent treatment from petroleum production, for petroleum desulfurization, and, in addition, for degradation of toxic organic compounds in wastewater for reuse. This project is supported by the IAEA (TC Project BRA1035, 2016–2018) and by the Brazilian Financial of Studies and Project (FINEP). To enlarge the national capacity to treat industrial effluents using electron beam accelerators, the mobile unit treating effluents on site from 1 m3/h up to 1000 m3/day, will provide an effective facility between a laboratory-scale plant to a large-scale plant, with the objective to demonstrate its efficacy and to transfer the technology. Studies have taken place in various productive sectors in the country and in other foreign laboratories to prove that radiation treatment offers technological and economic benefits over conventional techniques for treating recalcitrant pollutants.


  • IPEN-DOC 23057

    VARCA, G.H.C. ; MOHAMED, L.B.; FAZOLIN, G.N.; BATISTA, J.G.D.S.; QUEIROZ, R.G. ; LUGAO, A.B. ; NAVARRO MARQUES, F.A.; FERREIRA, A.H.. State of the art and current advances on protein cross-linking by irradiation: protein based nanocarriers and bioactive nanoparticles. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 171-171.

    Abstract: The highlighted role of protein and peptide based delivery systems relies upon the possibility to develop biocompatible drug carriers featuring site specific delivery, biological affinity among unique advantages. Recently, a technique for protein nanostructuring by the use of radiation has been recently reported by our group. Advantages of the use of radiation over conventional methods are related to the possibility to achieve protein cross-linking and sterilization in a single step, as well as the capacity to allow the design of nanocarriers without the need of monomers or toxic cross-linkers. This work reports the use of high energy irradiation towards the design of size-controlled protein-based nanocarriers and bioactive nanoparticles, using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and papain as model protein and protease, respectively, including the state of the art and current advances of the technology. The technique implies on protein desolvation/solvation techniques followed by cross-linking by EB radiation or -irradiation alone, although nanoparticles were also achieved in absence of the cosolvents. Size-controlled BSA nanocarriers were manufactured up to 80 nm and papain bioactive nanoparticles up to 12 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering. Nanocarrier morphology was evaluated by and negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Protein cross-linking and changes in aromatic the amino acids were evaluated by fluorescence measurements. Biocompatibility experimentswere also performed by means of cytotoxicity and cytokines production. The potential of the systems for the delivery of radiopharmaceuticals or chemotherapeutic agents were also assayed, using technetium or Paclitaxel respectively. In conclusion, the technique allowed the production of biocompatible and bioactive protein nanoparticles suitable for the administration of radiopharmaceuticals and chemotherapeutic agents.


  • IPEN-DOC 23056

    HAVERMANS, J.; PONTA, C.; QUOC-KHOI, T.; VASQUEZ, P. ; BOUTAINE, J.L.. Disinfection and consolidation of archived materials and cultural heritage artefacts by radiation processing techniques. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 139-139.

    Abstract: Degradation of organic and especially cellulose based heritage is caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors. One of the most common exogenous factor is moisture, and the variation of the equilibrium moisture content of the material can initiate the development of mold in the substrate. Mold not only affects cellulose materials, but is also impacts occupational health and thus should be rendered inactive as soon as possible. Doing nothing is not an option because active mold (even dormant) may deteriorate cellulose based heritage easily, while its wake-up call, i.e., an atmospheric moisture increase, can occur easily. Much work has been performed on the application of -radiation and therefore it is well accepted in, e.g., the food industry and for medical device sterilization. However for cultural heritage application, discussions are still on-going as ionizing radiation may be capable of deteriorating organic materials. Compared to conventional disinfection with chemicals, -radiation can be seen as a clean disinfection method as no harmful volatiles are emitted after the treatment with full effectiveness on deteriorating the mold species. In the past decade, many heritage science research programmes world-wide were dedicated to the application of ionizing radiation for disinfection and conservation. The research varied from optimization of the treatment to understanding of deterioration mechanisms, and in 2012 for the first time, an IAEA supported event was held in São Paulo, Brazil. The IAEA now supports a new research network dedicated to this topic aiming to solve final research gaps and produce well accepted recommendations. This paper reviews not only the state-of-the-art of international developments on the application of ionizing radiation for cultural heritage for both disinfection and conservation, but includes a summary of show-cases. For example, the disinfection of the Library collection of the Peace Palace, the Hague (Netherlands) and conservation of a XVIIIth century parquet, Grenoble (France). Finally a novel book dedicated to the topic of this presentation, supported by the IAEA, shall be introduced.


  • IPEN-DOC 23055

    BORRELY, S. ; FUNGARO, D. . Toxicity assays applications for assessing acute effects for radiation decomposition of organics in waters. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 108-108.

    Abstract: The knowledge for using electron bem irradiation for pollutants degradation is developing. Textile effluents and pharmaceuticals were the samples submitted to irradiations and to acute toxicity assays. An electron beam accelerator was the radiation source used for the treatment in batch experiments. Dafnids, rotifers and bacteria were applied for toxicity measurements. All the assays were performed at LEBA/IPEN (Environmental Biological Assays Laboratory). Doses required for decomposition of organics in water and related toxicity indicated that reduced colour of effluents with 2:5 kGy and 5 kGy. These doses were also suitable for toxic effects removal at pharmaceutical solutions (fluoxetine in sewage; propranolol and fluoxetine mixture and at fluoxetine and voltaren mixture). Part of real textile effluent (about 35% of samples) were very toxic (CE50   5%) for daphnids and luminescence Vibrio fischeri. The surfactants contained at textile effluent were the most toxic compound. Vibrio fischeri luminescence was confirmed as one of the most sensitive assay, followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus plicatis rotifers and Daphnia similis.


  • IPEN-DOC 23054

    KODAMA, Y. ; CARNEIRO, R.; ROSSI, M.; RODRIGUES JUNIOR, O. ; VASQUEZ, P. . Polycarbonate chromatography column to be used in a 99Mo/99mTc generator irradiated in saline solution with EB and gamma-Rays. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 99-99.

    Abstract: The technetium-99m generator (technetium cow or moly cow) is a device used to extract the metastable technetium isotope 99mTc from a source of decaying molybdenum-99. 99Mo has a half-life of 66 hours and can be easily transported over long distances to hospitals whereas its 99mTc decay product (half-life of 6 h is inconvenient for transport) is extracted and used for several nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures, where its short half-life is well adapted. This device works as a closed system, where the principal component is a chromatographic column of acid alumina (Al2O3) as stationary phase. Currently this column is produced using borosilicate type 1 glass. The goal of this study was to characterize the irradiated polycarbonate (PC) column in saline solution to simulate a 99Mo/99mTc generator in real use conditions. PC column and PC sampleswere EB and -irradiated in saline solution with radiation absorbed doses up to 200 kGy. Samples were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Additionally, the -irradiated PC column in presence of saline solution was studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection in order to investigate the chemical phase diffusion of bisphenol A (BPA). EPR results showed at X band region a strong singlet attributed to a phenoxyl radical in the irradiated sample at room temperature. Decay of radical occurs approximately within 40 days. UV spectra presented increase in relative absorbance at 400–450 nm with increasing radiation dose. Ionizing radiation caused greenness of the original clear PC samples. This discolouration confirms the formation of phenoxyl radicals. On the other hand, glass transition temperature decreased by 1% (5K) for the maximum radiation applied dose. Similarly, a small decrease on carboxyl group peak at 1770 cm 1 was observed by FTIR. No detectable change on crystallinity was observed by WAXD. For sterilization absorbed dose, results shown no significant changes on the studied properties that way can be recommend to use PC columns instead borosilicate glass column in the 99mTc generator. The protocol via HPLC with fluorescence detection used in this work can be employed to detect the chemical phase diffusion of BPA in saline solution at ppb concentration


  • IPEN-DOC 23053

    VASQUEZ, P. . Overview of disinfection of cultural heritage artefacts and archive materials by ionizing radiation in brazil: culture meets nuclear. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, April 24-28, 2017, Vienna, Austria. Abstract... Vienna: IAEA, 2017. p. 87-87.

    Abstract: Brazil is a multicultural South American country has had the influence of the pre-Columbian native civilizations, the Portuguese and African colonization and lately the European colonization especially from Germany and Italy, not to mention that Brazil is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan. In addition other factors, this situation makes the country own a vast variety collection of historic value objects. Brazilian weather conditions have been affected directly tangible materials causing deterioration besides on insects and fungi attack. Natural disasters particularly floods also have been affected many collections inside the country. Within this scenario, the -radiation processing arises as an alternative to traditional methods to the disinfection of cultural heritage artefacts and archived materials. Over the last years, the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), mainly through the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility located inside the São Paulo University campus, started a strong interaction programme with conservation and preservation institutions and too with the conservation community to disclose the irradiation technique. Currently, this facility has irradiated for disinfection purposes effectively several works of art, museum collections artefacts, books, manuscripts, drawings, archive documents, musical instruments, ethnographic objects, archaeological findings, natural history collections among others from various regions of the country. -irradiation has several advantages when compared with conventional preservation methods mainly related to the safety, efficiency, reliability, capacity, process time and safe for environment. The success obtained in Brazil with these applications is due to the support of the IAEA to many regional projects related to the nuclear techniques applied to cultural heritage preservation and research. The IAEA policies are helping to understand that the cultural heritage is a legacy of physical artefacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and restored for the benefit of future generations.


  • IPEN-DOC 23042

    FARIAS, WALNICE de F.C.; COUTINHO, ANTONIA V. da S.; COUTINHO, JUCELINO da S.; SILVA, PAULO S.C. da ; LUCAS, FABIO de O.. Avaliação da concentração de metais em amostras do pericarpo e mesocarpo do fruto da castanheira. In: ENCONTRO AMAZONICO DE AGRARIAS, 8., 26 de junho - 01 de julho, 2016, Belém, PA. Anais... 2016. p. 42-47.

    Abstract: A castanha-do-pará, é muito utilizada na alimentação humana, sendo produzida por uma planta da família Lecythidaceae, espécie Bertholettia excelsa. É uma planta símbolo do bioma amazônico, sendo encontrada em todos os estados da região. Os frutos da castanha-do-pará são denominados ouriços e nele estão contidos de 12 a 25 sementes. As sementes são ricas em proteínas e lipídeos, apresentando ainda uma quantidade considerável de selênio. Por ser um produto da agricultura extrativista, os estudos são bastante escassos, principalmente no que se refere à pós colheita e aproveitamento dos resíduos do processo. Assim, nesse trabalho, teve-se por objetivo determinar os constituintes inorgânicos, e avaliar a concentração dos elementos Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb e Zn por análise por ativação neutrônica. A relevância dessas análises é justificada pela necessidade de gerar informações que possam contribuir no aproveitamento de resíduos da castanha-do-pará.


  • IPEN-DOC 23036

    CERAVOLO, FLAVIO E.; ROCHA, MARCELO da S. ; OLIVEIRA, FABIO B.V. de ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de . Numerical simulation of isothermal upward two-phase flow in a vertical tube of annular section. In: JOURNEYS IN MULTIPHASE FLOWS, 4th, March 27-31, 2017, São Paulo, SP. Proceedings... Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas, 2017.

    Abstract: A numerical simulation of a vertical, upward, isothermal two-phase flow of air bubbles and water in an annular channel applying Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD) was carried out. The simulation considers an Eulerian frame, with two-fluid model, specific correlations for turbulence model considering the dispersion and bubble induction turbulence. The work intends to assess whether the code represents the physical phenomenon accurately by comparing the simulation results with experimental data obtained from literature. The annular channel adopted has equivalent hydraulic diameter of 19.1 mm, where the outer pipe has an internal diameter of 38.1 mm and inner rod 19.1 mm. To represent this geometry, a three-dimensional mesh was generated with 960000 elements, after a mesh independence study. The void fraction distribution, taken radially to the flow section is the main parameter analyzed besides interfacial area concentration, interfacial gas velocity, diameter and distribution of bubbles.


  • IPEN-DOC 23084

    HAGIWARA, Y.S.; PECORARO, G.D.; HORTELLANI, M.A. ; SARKIS, J.E.S. ; AZEVEDO, J.S.. Avaliação espacial dos teores de mercúrio total (THg) em ariídeos bioindicadores: uma estratégia preliminar de monitoração e conservação para o complexo estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia-Iguape. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE OCEANOGRAFIA, 7., 05-09 de novembro, 2016, Salvador, BA. Resumo... 2016. p. 769-769.

    Abstract: O mercúrio é um metal de grande importância ambiental, tanto pelos efeitos adversos que pode causar ao ambiente quanto aos danos associados à biota. O Complexo Estuarino-Lagunar de Cananéia-Iguape (CELCI) pode ser caracterizado ambientalmente de acordo com os diferentes processos hidrodinâmicos e influência antropogênica. A porção Norte do estuário representa um local de maior influência humana devido a plantações, construções, como o Vale Grande, e a presença do rio Ribeira do Iguape que contribui com aporte fluvial ao sistema estuarino. O setor Sul, por sua vez, apresenta condições mais preservadas, com uma hidrodinâmica mais acentuada regida pelo fluxo de maré e proximidade com o oceano. Deste modo, estudos sobre monitoramento na região de Cananéia (SP) apresentam elevada relevância. Cathorops spixii, bagres estuarinos da família Ariidae, tem sido utilizado como espécies bioindicadoras de contaminação por metais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de diferenças entre os setores Norte e Sul do CELCI, a partir da quantificação dos teores de THg no tecido muscular de Ariídeos bioindicadores de contaminação. Adicionalmente, os índices somáticos Fator de Condição (FC) e Índice Hepatossomático (IHS) foram calculados, uma vez que podem fornecer informações do bem-estar do indivíduo quanto ao ambiente em que se encontra e do grau de trofia hepática. 61 exemplares de Ariídeos foram coletados em agosto de 2014 nos setores Norte (n = 28) e Sul (n = 33) do CELCI. Após coleta e tomada dos dados biométricos, os peixes foram dissecados para retirada do tecido muscular para análise quanto a concentração de THg por via direta, através de decomposição termal utilizando um DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyzer – Milestone. Dados dos índices somáticos mostraram valores ligeiramente maiores para os peixes amostrados na região Sul (IHS = 1,94±0,46 e FC = 0,80±0,06) quando comparado aos peixes do setor Norte (IHS = 1,78±0,38 e FC = 0,72±0,06) do CELCI, indicando condições bióticas mais estáveis quanto à trofia hepática e bem estar para os exemplares do setor Sul. Em relação aos dados de THg, os Ariídeos do setor Sul apresentaram uma variação de THg de 33,49 a 455,11 μg Kg-1 enquanto que os indivíduos do setor Norte variaram a concentração de THg de 34,24 a 247,56 μg Kg-1. Os valores de mediana entre os 2 setores não mostraram diferenças significativas nos teores de THg (Sul: 64,69 μg Kg-1; Norte: 60,25 μg Kg-1). Em conjunto, os dados dos índices somáticos e dos teores de THg demonstram um melhor grau de bem-estar para os peixes da área mais preservada, com baixos e similares teores de THg entre os setores Norte e Sul não indicando condições disruptoras significativas para estes organismos. Entretanto, deve-se considerar, que por ser tratar de uma área de proteção ambiental, mesmo em baixas concentrações, a monitoração do THg faz-se necessária, uma vez que seu ingresso no estuário pode estar relacionado a região de Ribeira de Iguape, no setor Norte do estuário.


  • IPEN-DOC 23083

    PECORARO, G.D.; HORTELLANI, M.A. ; BRAGA, E.S.; SARKIS, J.E.S. ; AZEVEDO, J.S.. Padrões de bioacumulação de mercúrio total (THG) como indicativo de atividade metabólica de ariídeos da porção norte e sul do complexo estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia-Iguape, SP. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE OCEANOGRAFIA, 7., 05-09 de novembro, 2016, Salvador, BA. Resumo... 2016. p. 740-740.

    Abstract: A bioacumulação representa o processo pelo qual compostos químicos são acumulados em diferentes órgãos/tecidos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo, entender a bioacumulação do mercúrio total (THg), devido seu elevado potencial tóxico, nos Ariídeos Cathorops spixii e Genidens genidens a partir da análise deste metal nas brânquias, gônadas e rim. Um total de 65 peixes foram coletados no estuário de Cananéia (SP, Brasil), em duas porções, Norte e Sul, com diferentes características, a saber: Norte - aporte de água doce devido à proximidade com o Rio Ribeira de Iguape, o qual recebe diferentes materiais de origem continental e antropogênica via Valo Grande; Sul - localizada entre a baia de Trapandé e a ilha de Cananéia, apresentando assim características mais estuarina naturalmente influenciada pelo hidrodinamismo com o mar. Os peixes foram amostrados durante o inverno de 2014, com auxílio de redes de arrasto de fundo em uma profundidade média de 6m. Após coleta, foi feita a biometria dos espécimens para efeito dos cálculos dos índices somáticos: Fator de Condição (FC) e Índice Hepatossomático (IHS). Após dissecção, para obtenção dos diferentes tecidos, as amostras foram analisadas quanto ao teor de Hg por processo de análise sólida direta por decomposição termal (DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyzer – Milestone). Dados dos índices somáticos mostraram ausência de diferenças significativas tanto para os peixes amostrados na porção Sul (IHSSul = 1,939 ± 0,452; FCSul = 0,797 ± 0,060) quanto na porção Norte (IHSNorte = 1,844 ± 0,429; FCNorte = 0,710 ± 0,063;) do estuário, indicando condições estáveis quanto ao bem estar e trofia hepática dos peixes para ambas áreas. Em relação aos teores de THg, verificou-se um acúmulo decrescente na ordem rim>gônada>brânquia. Comparando as áreas, foi possível verificar maiores concentrações de THg na porção Sul (HgRim = 377,32μg/kg; HgGônada = 68,07μg/kg; HgBrânquia = 23,97μg/kg), quando comparado aos peixes amostrados na porção Norte (HgRim = 165,48μg/kg; HgGônada = 19,40μg/kg; HgBrânquia = 18,25μg/kg). O padrão de bioacumulação observado indica uma maior atividade metabólica nos peixes oriundos da porção Sul do estuário. Este padrão pode estar associado a maior exigência metabólica dos organismos em água mais salobra que consiste no principal fator abiótico que diferencia os dois setores, uma vez que o setor sul, mais preservado, está sob maior influência da hidrodinâmica marinha e os organismos devem estar mais ativos quanto ao controle osmótico. Esta hipótese é corroborada pela salinidade das águas de fundo (SFundo – Sul = 30,59; SFundo – Norte = 11,67), assim como, os processos de mistura mais intensos que influenciaram as amostragens, realizadas em maré de sizígia durante o período de enchente. Finalmente, os maiores dados de THg nas gônadas dos peixes da porção Sul pode ocasionar efeitos diretos na reprodução destes espécimens. Porém, não se pode deixar de observar que a fonte de contaminantes na região ocorre, sobretudo, via setor norte. Este trabalho mostra que as condições abióticas devem ser avaliadas em associação com as metabólicas, principalmente em ambientes com grande gradiente de transição natural ou antrópica.


  • IPEN-DOC 23082

    VEDOLIN, M.C.; TEOPHILO, C.Y.S.; FIGUEIRA, R.C.L.; TURRA, A.. Variabilidade espacial da concentração de metais em microplásticos coletados em praias: um novo insight sobre poluição. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE OCEANOGRAFIA, 7., 05-09 de novembro, 2016, Salvador, BA. Resumo... 2016. p. 805-805.

    Abstract: O termo “microplástico” é atribuído a produtos plásticos, os quais o tamanho estão dentro do intervalo de 1 a 10mm, variando de estudo para estudo. Dentre estes produtos, estão os pellets, grânulos plásticos que correspondem à forma principal com que as resinas plásticas são produzidas e comercializadas para serem usadas como matéria-prima em indústrias de transformação, onde são derretidas e moldadas de acordo com o produto final. Devido à perda durante os processos de produção e transporte, tais pellets podem atuar como uma potencial fonte contaminante no ambiente por conta da liberação e/ou adsorção de contaminantes orgânicos e inorgânicos. Este estudo investiga as interações entre poluentes inorgânicos, os metais, dissolvidos em pellets coletados em diferentes praias do litoral de São Paulo. Especificamente, o estudo comparou a realização do método e seus resultados em grânulos virgens, ou seja, aqueles obtidos a partir de uma fábrica de moldagem com os recolhidos das praias. Foram quantificados os elementos: Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sn, Ti e Zn empregando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES). Os polímeros foram solubilizados via digestão ácida (EPA3050B). Os níveis de metais em amostras de pellets virgens são relativamente baixos, se comparados aos pellets coletados, indicando a possível pureza destas amostras. Já para os pellets coletados, os níveis de metais apresentam a seguinte ordem crescente de concentração: Fe> Al > Mn> Ti > Cu , Zn, sendo os maiores valores encontrados para Fe e Al, 391,56 mg kg-1, praia de Itaguaré e 58,63 mg kg-1, praia de Tabatinga , respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa nos níveis de metais em relação aos locais amostrados (Anova p<0,05) e em relação aos elementos analisados (Anova p<0,05), no entanto, não houve diferença estatística entre os elementos Ti e Zn (teste de Tukey p>0,05). Para a maioria dos metais, os maiores níveis ocorrem em áreas de intensa urbanização e/ou próximas a regiões portuárias, indicando a poluição gerada por tais locais. Essa condição, somada ao fato da capacidade de adsorção de metais em pellets coletados ser maior devido ao desenvolvimento de sítios de absorção na superfície durante a exposição a condições ambientais; pode aumentar o potencial do pellet como um acumulador. Sendo assim, os resultados sugerem que pellets de plástico têm o potencial de acumular e transportar metais no ambiente marinho, mesmo em pequena quantidade, podendo ser considerados como um vetor para o transporte destes poluentes no meio ambiente.


  • IPEN-DOC 23035

    MORA, T.A.; OLIVEIRA, J. ; FIGUEIRA, R.C.L.; MAHIQUES, M.M.; SOUSA, S.H.M.. Evaluation of the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb- 210 in sediments from Antarctica, in the admiralty bay region. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE OCEANOGRAFIA, 7., 05-09 de novembro, 2016, Salvador, BA. Resumo... 2016. p. 690-690.

    Abstract: The natural radionuclides of U-238, U-235 and Th-232 series have been used as tracers in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. Some of the natural radionuclides are especially used as tracers of the flux of particulated material into the ocean, which occur both in the water column and/ or in the sediment. The Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 have helped scientists understand some environmental phenomena occurring on the planet. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of a sedimentary column called (1B) of 248 cm collected in the Admiralty Bay, South Shetland archipelago – Antarctica region to determine the activity concentrations (mBq g-1) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 and the its application in a geochronological model to calculate the sedimentation rate. The sediment samples were submitted an acid leaching and then the radiochemical separation of Ra-226, Ra-228 was performed by coprecipitation of the Ba(Ra)SO4 and sequential separation of the Pb-210 by co-precipitation of PbCrO4. These precipitates were measured in gas-flow low background proportional detector. The Ba(Ra)SO4 was measured after 21 days of the precipitation and the PbCrO4 precipitate were measured after 10 days from the final date precipitation. The Pb-210 was detected via gross beta counting of its Bi-210 decay products. The time interval of 21 days for Ra-226 measurement was required for its achieve secular equilibrium with their daughters and the contribution of alpha emitting radioisotopes Ra-223 an Ra-224 were nil. This time interval was also enough to allow the equilibrium Ra-228/Ac-228. The activity concentration of Ra-226 ranged from 11±1 (mBq g-1) to 54±5 (mBq g-1), and the Ra-228 ranged from 48±5 (mBq g-1) to 155±13 (mBq g-1). With the values obtained from activity concentrations of Ra-226 and Pb-210, it was determined the activity concentration of unsupported Pb-210, which is Pb that comes from the atmosphere. The activity concentration of Pb-210 ranged from 7±1 (mBq g-1) to 458±23 (mBq g-1), while unsupported Pb-210 ranged from 7±3 (mBq g-1) to 434±25 (mBq g-1). Based on CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) geochronological model, the sedimentation rate of 0.59±0.05 cm year-1 was estimated in the sedimentary column (1B) coming from the Admiralty Bay region.


  • IPEN-DOC 23029

    BELINATO, W.; SANTOS, W.S. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. ; NEVES, L.P.; SOUZA, D.N.. Dosimetria de pacientes adultos submetidos a exames de PET/CT. Anais da SBBN, v. 3, p. 40-40, 2016.

    Abstract: Introdução: A tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET) associada à tomografia computadorizada (CT), chamada PET/CT, é uma técnica diagnóstica que auxilia na determinação precisa de regiões tumorais nos pacientes. É possível determinar as doses absorvidas em adultos submetidos a exames de PET/CT por meio de simulações computacionais realizadas com o método de Monte Carlo. Dessa maneira, utilizamos o código de Monte Carlo MCNPX para realizar este estudo, como também informações contidas na ICRP 103 e ICRP 106, tanto para a técnica de PET quanto para a técnica de CT. Objetivos: O objetivo deste trabalho é, utilizando o código MCNPX, estudar as doses efetivas a partir da determinação das doses absorvidas em órgãos internos dos pacientes em decorrência de exames de PET/CT. Para isso, foram empregados simuladores antropomórficos computacionais com representação dos órgãos e estruturas internas realistas de pacientes adultos incorporados em cenários de radiação de dois equipamentos PET/CT, modelos Discovery VCT (GE) e Biograph(Siemens). Métodos: Para a determinação das doses devido ao exame de PET, o radionuclídelo18F-FDG foi distribuído uniformemente em 23 órgãos internos dos simuladores adultos e, por meio do Código MCNPX, os valores das doses absorvidas por atividade injetada no paciente determinadas. As doses absorvidas devido ao exame de CT foram simuladas após a determinação dos filtros gravata-borboleta, construídos para cada um dois equipamentos. Por fim, apresentamos a dose efetiva devido ao procedimento de PET/CT considerando parâmetros comumente utilizados em exames de pacientes adultos. Resultados: As doses efetivas estimadas nos simuladores computacionais antropomórficos adultos devido à CT são responsáveis por 14,2% e 26,3% nos equipamentos GE e Siemens, respectivamente, para um exame de PET/CT em adulto. Devido ao 18F-FDG, os coeficientes de dose para dose absorvida apresentaram um acréscimo de 30% em relação aos valores da ICRP 106. As doses efetivas para o exame de PET/CT variam com a atividade injetada no paciente e os parâmetros utilizados na tomografia. Considerando uma atividade de 370 MBqde 18F-FDG e os parâmetros 140 kVp-140 mAspara o tomógrafo GE e 130 kVp-120 mAspara o Siemens, a dose efetiva total de PET/CT foi de 8,73 mSve 11,69 mSvconsiderando-se o exame realizado em equipamento da GE e 10,37 e 13,34 mSvno equipamento Siemens para os simuladores masculino e feminino, respectivamente. A atuação do recurso Caredose 4D, reduzindo 66% do mAsda Siemens, faria com que as doses da tomografia fossem idênticas às avaliadas considerando-se o exame no equipamento da GE. Conclusão: A determinação das doses absorvidas devido ao feixe de CT e também por atividade de radiofármacoadministrada no paciente possibilita o cálculo da dose efetiva total em procedimento de PET/CT, considerando as informações contidas na ICRP 103 e ICRP 106. As doses efetivas estimadas em adultos devido ao feixe de raios X são responsáveis por 14,2% e 26,3% da dose efetiva total em um exame realizados no equipamento PET/CT GE e Siemens, respectivamente. Considerando as doses efetivas devido ao 18F-FDG, os coeficientes por atividade administrada apresentaram um acréscimo de 30% em relação aos valores da ICRP 106. Em pacientes individuais, a dose efetiva pode ser estimada a partir dos parâmetros utilizados na tomografia e dos valores de atividade de radiofármacoinjetada para a aquisição das imagens de PET.


  • IPEN-DOC 23023


    Abstract: The safe management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS) is presently a concern of the government of many countries, as well as the IAEA because many of these sources have potential to cause severe radiological accidents and because a pathway that will eventually lead to their disposal as a radioactive waste is so far mostly unavailable. Brazil is currently one of those countries. The Brazilian inventory of sealed radioactive sources (SRS) includes about 15,630 DSRS, with total estimated activity of 1 PBq stored in centralized waste management facilities and about 7762 SRS still held by the users, with total estimated activity of about 0.2 EBq. When the 241Am sources removed from radioactive lightning rods and ionic smoke detectors are included, the number of stored DSRS amounts to about 190,000. The total activity figure is unchanged, however, because these are low-activity sources. Although the project of a near surface repository for LILW is still in the site selection phase, the inventory of DSRS stored in Brazilian facilities consists of alpha-emitting, long-lived radionuclides such as americium and radium. Besides, the inventory has a large number of sealed sources of short-lived radionuclides (e.g. 3H, 60Co, 85Kr, 90Sr, 137Cs). However, depending on the strength of the source, many of them may not meet the waste acceptance criteria for near surface disposal. Consequently, another disposal technology, a deep borehole repository, is being considered. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, developed a concept of borehole disposal in the early 2000s. However, during a TCP with the IAEA in 2014-2015, with the participation of staff from other institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), project team chose the BOSS concept developed by NECSA, for further consideration. While the IPEN concept has still a long way to go in terms of detailed engineering, preliminary safety assessment and quality assurance documentation, the BOSS technology is now ready for implementation, with technical support from the IAEA. The paper will present the results of the work performed by the TCP team and the prospects for the implementation of the disposal of DSRS in Brazil, with an emphasis on the safety aspects of the endeavor.


  • IPEN-DOC 23081

    MIRANDA, REGINA M. de; LOPES, FABIO; ROSARIO, NILTON E. do; YAMASOE, MARCIA A.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ANDRADE, MARIA de F.. The relationship between aerosol particles chemical composition and optical properties to identify the biomass burning contribution to fine particles concentration: a case study for São Paulo city, Brazil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 189, n. 6, p. 1-15, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5659-7

    Abstract: The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state’s inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources. For the clear identification of the local and remote source contribution, aerosol properties measurements at surface level were combined with vertical profiles information. Over 15 days in the austral winter of 2012, particulate matter (PM) was collected using a cascade impactor and a Partisol sampler in São Paulo City. Mass concentrations were determined by gravimetry, black carbon concentrations by reflectance, and trace element concentrations by X-ray fluorescence. Aerosol optical properties were studied using a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), a Lidar system and satellite data. Optical properties, concentrations, size distributions, and elemental composition of atmospheric particles were strongly related and varied according to meteorological conditions. During the sampling period, PM mean mass concentrations were 17.4 ± 10.1 and 15.3 ± 6.9 μg/m3 for the fine and coarse fractions, respectively. The mean aerosol optical depths at 415 nm and Ångström exponent (AE) over the whole period were 0.29 ± 0.14 and 1.35 ± 0.11, respectively. Lidar ratios reached values of 75 sr. The analyses of the impacts of an event of biomass burning smoke transport to the São Paulo city revealed significant changing on local aerosol concentrations and optical parameters. The identification of the source contributions, local and remote, to the fine particles in MASP can be more precisely achieved when particle size composition and distribution, vertical profile of aerosols, and air mass trajectories are analyzed in combination.


  • IPEN-DOC 23079

    BELINELLO-SOUZA, ESTEFANI L.; ALVARENGA, LETICIA H.; LIMA-LEAL, CINTIA; ALMEIDA, PATRICIA; LEITE, CAROLINA G.; LIMA, TAIRINE R.; GODOY-MIRANDA, BIANCA; PREVIATI-OLIVEIRA, JHOSEPHER; PRETTO, LUCAS de; FREITAS, ANDERSON Z. de ; FERNANDES, ADJACI U.; MARCOS, RODRIGO L.; PRATES, RENATO A.. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined to periodontaltreatment: Experimental model. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, v. 18, p. 275-278, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.03.008

    Abstract: tBackground: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment forperiodontitis. It combines a photosensitizer with a light source to induce reactive oxygen species and killmicrobial cells. PpNetNI is a protoporphyrin derivative, and it has a chemical binding site at biofilm andgreat affinity to microbial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aPDT as an adjuvanttreatment for periodontitis.Methods: Thirty healthy male rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) were used in this study (Approved by UNI-NOVE Ethical committee AN0029/2015). Periodontitis was induced by placing a cotton ligature aroundthe first mandibular molar in a subgengival position. The contralateral mandibular first molar receivedneither a ligature nor any treatment, and was used as a control. After 7 days, the ligature was removedand all animals received scaling and root planing (SRP) and were divided according to the following treat-ments: SRP group (received SRP and irrigation with PpNetNI, 10 M) and aPDT group (PpNetNI 10 Mfollowed by LED irradiation). aPDT was performed with a LED (630 nm) with an output power of 400 mW(fluence-rate 200 mW/cm2; fluence 18 J/cm2). Rats were euthanized at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days postopera-tively. The area of bone loss in vestibular region of the first molar was evaluated by Optical CoherenceTomography (OCT, THORLABS LTD., Ely, UK). Data were analyzed statistically (ANOVA and Tukey tests,p < 0.05).Results: The animals treated by aPDT showed bone gain of approximately 30% compared to the SRP groupfollowing 7 days from the treatment.Conclusion: aPDT promoted bone recovery 7 days after periodontal intervention.


  • IPEN-DOC 23078

    MATOS, BRUNO R. ; SILVA, JAQUELINE S. da; SANTIAGO, ELISABETH I.; PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; CARASTAN, DANILO J.; FLORIO, DANIEL Z. de; ANDRADA, HEBER E.; CARRERAS, ALEJO C.; FONSECA, FABIO C. . Proton and cesium conductivity in perfluorosulfonate ionomers at low and high relative humidity. Solid State Ionics, v. 301, p. 86-94, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2017.01.019

    Abstract: Nafion exhibits one of the highest proton conductivity at room temperature and it is the standard electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). However, the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of Nation is highly dependent on the measuring conditions and it is still a matter of debate. In the present study, detailed dielectric spectroscopy (DS) measurements in both dry (under N2 flow) and water-saturated conditions were carried out in a broad range of temperature and frequency. Such DS results were correlated to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data taken in similar conditions. The main results revealed that in samples conditioned in N2 flow (RH ~0%) the transport of both proton and cesiumions is coordinated with the dynamics of Nafion relaxations. In hydrated Nafion (proton form), conductivity measurements at different frequencies revealed two regimes: one at high-frequency, in which the Vogel-Tamman- Fulcher (VTF) law indicates a close relation between the polymer glass transition temperature Tg; and, a second one at low frequency, bearing great similarity to the transport observed in nearly dry samples. The reported experimental results contribute to disentangle the intricate transport properties of Nafion.


  • IPEN-DOC 23077

    MARTINS, FERNANDO H.; SILVA, FRANCISCARLOS G.; PAULA, FABIO L.O.; GOMES, JULIANO de A.; AQUINO, RENATA; MESTNIK-FILHO, JOSE; BONVILLE, PIERRE; PORCHER, FLORENCE; PERZYNSKI, REGIME; DEPEYROT, JEROME. Local structure of core−shell MnFe2O4+δ-based nanocrystals: cation distribution and valence states of manganese ions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, v. 121, n. 16, p. 8982-8991, 2017. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09274

    Abstract: We investigate the local structure of nanoparticles based on a manganese ferrite core surrounded or not by a maghemite layer obtained after hydrothermal surface treatment. Results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements are crossed with those of infield Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES/EXAFS) to study the valence state of Mn ions and the cation distribution at interstitial sites of the core−shell nanoparticle structure. Linear combination fitting of XANES data clearly indicates the existence of mixed valence states of Mn cations in the Mn ferrite phase. As a direct consequence, it induces nonequilibrium cation distributions in the nanoparticle core with the presence of a large amount of Mn cations at octahedral sites. The quantitative results of the inversion degree given by NPD, Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements, and EXAFS are in good accordance. It is also shown that both the proportions of each oxidation degree of Mn ions and their location at tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the spinel nanocrystal core can be modified by increasing the duration of the surface treatment.


  • IPEN-DOC 23076

    MARTINS JUNIOR, J.R.S.; MATOS, A.A.; OLIVEIRA, R.C.; BUZALAF, M.A.R.; COSTA, I. ; ROCHA, L.A.; GRANDINI, C.R.. Preparation and characterization of alloys of the Ti–15Mo–Nb system for biomedical applications. v. 105, 2017.

    Abstract: In the development of new metallic biomaterials, the Ti–15Mo alloy has great prominence because of its excellent corrosion resistance and good combination of mechanical properties. In this study, the element niobium was added to the Ti–15Mo alloy, forming the Ti–15Mo–Nb system for the purpose of improving their properties and promoting its application as a biomaterial. These alloys are very promising to use as biomedical implants, because they integrate a new class of titanium alloys without the presence of aluminum and vanadium, which may cause cytotoxic effects. The alloys were produced by arc-melting and characterized by density, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, elastic modulus, corrosion, and cytotoxicity assays. The developed alloys have b phase predominance (with bcc crystalline structure). The addition of niobium decreases the microhardness and elastic modulus, with values around 80 GPa, which is well below that of the metallic alloys used commercially for this type of application. Very low passive current densities were found for all alloys studied showing that the passive film on these alloys is highly protective. In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the introduction of niobium did not cause cytotoxic effects in the studied alloys.


  • IPEN-DOC 23075

    MANTILLA, TAIS F.; TURSSI, CECILIA P.; RAMOS-OLIVEIRA, THAYANNE M.; SILVA, CAMILA V. da; SUZUKI, LUIS C. ; FREITAS, PATRICIA M. de. The In Situ effect of titanium tetrafluoride gel on erosion/abrasion progression in human dentin. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 8, n. 3, p. 337-345, 2017. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201601247

    Abstract: Erosion incidence is increasing and its control is still a challenge in clinical practice. This study evaluated 4% TiF4-gel effects on eroded human dentin subjected to in situ erosive/ abrasive episodes. Seventy-two previously eroded dentin slabs (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 20 min) were allocated to 6 groups (n=12) according to the treatment to be performed during the in situ phase and number of erosive/abrasive cycles, as follows: 4% TiF4-gel applied once (TiF41), twice (TiF42) or three times (TiF43) followed by 1, 2 and 3 erosive/ abrasive cycles, respectively. Gel was applied before the beginning of the next cycle. Control groups were subjected to 1 (C1), 2 (C2) and 3 (C3) erosive/abrasive cycles only. A seventh group (n=12) comprised in vitro uneroded samples (UN) subjected to 3 erosive/ abrasive cycles. Each cycle corresponded to 2 days of erosive (citric acid 0.5%, pH 2.6, 6x/day) and abrasive (electric toothbrush, 10 s/sample, 1 x/day) challenges. Samples were evaluated under profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Atomic force microscopy images (AFM) were also made (n=3). Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.001) showed that TiF42, which did not differ from TiF41 and TiF43, revealed a significant reduction in surface loss compared to all control groups. TiF41 and TiF43 showed no significant difference from C1, but both groups demonstrated significantly smaller surface loss than C2 and C3. ESEM and AFM micrographs suggested alterations on treated surfaces compared to samples from control groups, showing reduced diameters of dentinal tubules lumens. Therefore, TiF4 was able to reduce the progression of erosive/abrasive lesions.


  • IPEN-DOC 23074

    MANTILLA, TAIS F.; SILVA, CAMILA V. da; RAMOS-OLIVEIRA, THAYANNE M.; TURSSI, CECILIA P.; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. ; FREITAS, PATRICIA M. de. TiF4 gel effects on tubular occlusion of eroded/ abraded human dentin. Microscopy Research and Technique, v. 80, p. 1-7, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.22915

    Abstract: This in situ study evaluated the tubular occlusion caused by 4% TiF4 gel on the surface of eroded/ abraded dentin. Sixty human dentin samples were eroded in vitro and assigned into six groups (n510) according to the in situ surface treatment and number of cycling days: 4% TiF4 gel applied once (TiF41), twice (TiF42), or three times (TiF43) followed by 2, 4, and 6 days of erosive/abrasive in situ cycling, respectively. Control groups (no treatment) were subjected to 2 (C1), 4 (C2), and 6 (C3) days of erosive/abrasive in situ cycling only. A seventh group (n510) was comprised by in vitro uneroded samples (UN), subjected to 6 days of in situ erosive/abrasive cycling. Each cycling day consisted on six erosive (0.5% citric acid, pH 2.6) and one abrasive events. Environmental scanning electron microscopy micrographs were taken. For all groups, blinded examiners assessed dentin tubules occlusion using visual scores (0—unoccluded, 1—partially occluded by granular deposits, 2—partially occluded by reduction in tubular lumen into diamond shape, 3—completely occluded) on images captured prior and after the in situ phase. Scheirer-Ray-Hare test demonstrated that treatments significantly affected tubule occlusion (p<.001). Dunn’s test showed that tubule occlusion in TiF43 was significantly higher than in C1. Tubule occlusion in remaining groups did not differ from that observed in groups TiF43 and C1. Tubule occlusion was significantly higher after in situ phase. It may be suggested that TiF4, when applied three times, was able to positively change tubule occlusion of dentin samples.


  • IPEN-DOC 23073

    MAGRI, ANGELA M.P.; FERNANDES, KELLY R.; UENO, FABIO R.; KIDO, HUELITON W.; SILVA, ANTONIO C. da ; BRAGA, FRANCISCO J.C. ; GRANITO, RENATA N.; GABBAI-ARMELIN, PAULO R.; RENNO, ANA C.M.. Osteoconductive properties of two different bioactive glass forms (powder and fiber) combined with collagen. Applied Surface Science, v. 423, p. 557-565, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.06.152

    Abstract: Bioactive Glasses (BG) is a group of synthetic silica-based materials with the unique ability to bond to living bone and can be used in bone repair. Although the osteogenic potential of BG, this material may have not present sufficient osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties to allow bone regeneration, especially in compromised situations. In order to overcome this limitation, it was proposed the combination the BG in two forms (powder and fiber) combined with collagen type I (COL-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BG/COL-based materials in terms of morphological characteristics, physicochemical features and mineralization. Additionally, the second objective was to investigate and compare the osteoconductive properties of two different bioactive glass forms (powder and fiber) enriched or not with collagen using a tibial bone defect model in rats. For this, four different formulations (BG powder – BGp, BG powder enriched with collagen – BGp/Col, BG fibers – BGf and BGp fibers enriched with collagen – BGf/Col) were developed. The physicochemical and morphological modifications were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, calcium assay and pH measurement. For in vivo evaluations, histopathology, morphometrical and immunohistochemistry were performed in a tibial defect in rats. The FTIR analysis indicated that BGp and BGf maintained the characteristic peaks for this class of material. Furthermore, the calcium assay showed an increased Ca uptake in the BG fibers. The pH measurements revealed that BGp (with or without collagen) presented higher pH values compared to BGf. In addition, the histological analysis demonstrated no inflammation for all groups at the site of the injury, besides a faster material degradation and higher bone ingrowth for groups with collagen. The immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated Runx-2 and Rank-L expression for all the groups. Those findings support that BGp with collagen can be a promising alternative for treating fracture of difficult consolidation.


  • IPEN-DOC 23072

    LEAL, ALEXANDRE S.; MELO, FERNANDA P.S.; GOMES, TATIANA C.B.; SANTANA, AMALIA S.; CUNHA, LUZIA H. da; SAIKI, MITIKO . Avaliação preliminar da qualidade da fluoxetina comercializada por farmácias de manipulação em Belo Horizonte/MG / Preliminary assessment of the quality of the fluoxetine commercialized by pharmacies of manipulation from the city of Belo Horizonte/Brazil. Vigilância Sanitária em Debate: Sociedade, Ciência & Tecnologia, v. 5, n. 1, p. 76-83, 2017. DOI: 10.22239/2317-269x.00810

    Abstract: Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas 14 amostras de fluoxetina comercializadas por 13 estabelecimentos diferentes da rede de farmácias magistrais em Belo Horizonte/MG. A amostragem obtida representa 47,0% do total de 30 unidades de preparação distintas na cidade e corresponde a cerca de 180 pontos de venda. Foram realizadas análises de determinação de peso, identificação, teor de princípio ativo e uniformidade de doses unitárias. As análises foram realizadas pela Fundação Estadual Ezequiel Dias (Funed/MG) com base nas metodologias descritas nas farmacopeias de referência. Foram observadas irregularidades em algumas amostras como na rotulagem e ensaio de teor. Foi também investigada a presença e concentração de metais e outras impurezas inorgânicas através da técnica de análise por ativação neutrônica (AAN). Os resultados mostraram também a presença de elementos como As, Br, Co, Cr e Hf que, mesmo em baixas concentrações, podem ser prejudiciais à saúde humana se consumidos de forma constante durante longo prazo.


  • IPEN-DOC 23070

    JIMENEZ-VILLAR, ERNESTO; SILVA, IRAN F. da; MESTRE, VALDECI; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. ; LOPEZ, CEFE; OLIVEIRA, PAULO C. de; FAUSTINO, WAGNER M.; SA, GILBERTO F. de. Random Lasing at Localization Transition in a Colloidal Suspension (TiO2@Silica). ACS Omega, v. 2, n. 6, p. 2415-2421, 2017. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.7b00086

    Abstract: Anderson localization of light and random lasing in this critical regime is an open research frontier, which besides being a basic research topic could also lead to important applications. This article investigates the random laser action at the localization transition in a strongly disordered scattering medium composed of a colloidal suspension of core−shell nanoparticles (TiO2@Silica) in ethanol solution of Rhodamine 6G. The classical superfluorescence band of the random laser was measured separately by collecting the emission at the back of the samples, showing a linear dependence with pumping fluence without gain depletion. However, frontal collection showed saturation of the absorption and emission. Narrow peaks of approximately equal intensity are observed on top of the classical superfluorescence band, indicating suppression of the interaction between the peaks modes. The linewidth of these peaks is lower than that of the passive modes of the scattering medium. A method called fraction of absorbed pumping allowed us to infer that this peak’s mode (localized modes) is confined to a shallow region near the input-pumping border.


  • IPEN-DOC 23051

    CARDOSO-GUSTAVSON, POLIANA; FERNANDES, FRANCINE F.; ALVES, EDENISE S.; VICTORIO, MARIANA P.; MOURA, BARBARA B.; DOMINGOS, MARISA; RODRIGUES, CAROLINE A.; RIBEIRO, ANDREZA P.; NIEVOLA, CATARINA C.; FIGUEIREDO, ANA M.G. . Tillandsia usneoides: a successful alternative for biomonitoring changes in air quality due to a new highway in São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 23, n. 2, p. 1779-1788, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5449-8

    Observação: Editorial Note (arquivo anexado) em 2017, 24:12015. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9033-2.

    Abstract: Tillandsia usneoides is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that absorbs water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere by scales covering its surface. We expanded the use of this species as a broader biomonitor based on chemical and structural markers to detect changes in air quality. The usefulness of such comprehensive approach was tested during the construction and opening of a highway (SP-21) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The biomonitoring study was performed from 2009 to 2012, thus comprising the period during construction and after the highway inauguration. Metal accumulation and structural alterations were assessed, in addition to microscopy analyses to understand the metal chelation in plant tissues and to assess the causes of alterations in the number and shape of scale cells. Altogether, our analyses support the use of this species as a wide biomonitor of air quality in urbanized areas.


  • IPEN-DOC 23050

    GROSSO, ROBSON L. ; MUCCILLO, ELIANA N.S. ; CASTRO, RICARDO H.R.. Phase stability in scandia-zirconia nanocrystals. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, v. 100, n. 5, p. 2199-2208, 2017. DOI: 10.1111/jace.14710

    Abstract: Scandia-zirconia system has great technological interest as it has the highest ionic conductivity among doped zirconia ceramics. However, polymorphism is the most important limiting factor for application of this material. Considering that there is a strong grain size dependence on phase transitions in this class of materials, mapping out the stable polymorph as a function of grain size and composition may lead to more efficient compositional design. In this article, the phase stability of zirconia-scandia nanocrystals was investigated based on experimental thermodynamic data. Exploiting recent advances in microcalorimetry, reliable surface energy data for five polymorphs of scandia-zirconia system: monoclinic, tetragonal, cubic, rhombohedral b and c are reported for the first time. Combining surface energy values with bulk enthalpy data obtained from oxide melt drop solution calorimetry allowed us to create a predictive phase stability diagram that shows the stable zirconia polymorph as a function of composition and grain size of the specimen within the range of 0-20 mol% scandia.


  • IPEN-DOC 23049

    GOMES, LAERCIO ; DENALDI, RAFAEL L. ; MORAES, JAIR R. de ; BALDOCHI, SONIA L. . The luminescence parameters of Yb3+:Er3+-doped LiLa(WO4)2 single crystal grown in the form of fiber for up-conversion green emission. Journal of Luminescence, v. 187, p. 479-485, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2017.03.072

    Abstract: This report details the first study of the luminescence properties of a single crystal grown in the form of fiber for prospective application as the gain medium for fiber laser emission at 552 nm. The excited state decay processes related with the 4S3/2→4I15/2 transition in double Yb3+:Er3+-doped LiLa(WO4)2 crystal have been investigated using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with a Er3+ concentration of 0.5 mol% and Yb3+ with 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 mol%. Selective laser excitation of the 2F5/2 energy level of Yb3+(972 nm) and selective laser excitations of the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 energy levels of Er3+(972 and 1550 nm), respectively has established that in a similar way to other optical materials, a strong energy-transfer up-conversion by way of a dipole-dipole interactions between an Yb3+ excited and Er3+ ions, the 4F5/2 level (Yb3+) populates the 4S3/2 upper laser level of the 550 nm transition. The 4S3/2 energy level emits luminescence with peaks having the wavelength center at 550 nm with luminescence efficiency increasing from 7% for Er3+ singly doped to 36% for Yb3+(15 mol%) co-doped crystals. The 4S3/2 lifetime of Er3+ is observed to increase due to the saturation of the multiphonon relaxation rate at high excited-state density of Yb3+ ions. At high excited-state density, Yb3+ ions saturates the accepting modes inside of a critical volume of RC=39.4 Å centered at an excited Er3+(4S3/2) ion, by the high-energy phonons generated from emission sideband of Yb3+ ions in Yb(x%):Er(0.5%) crystals. It is established that the green (552 nm) upconversion luminescence of Er3+ is optimized using an Yb3+ concentration of 11.5 mol% for Er(0.5%):LiLa (WO4)2 crystal.


  • IPEN-DOC 23048

    GEORGIEVA, DESSISLAVA; HILDEBRAND, DIANA; SIMAS, RODRIGO; CORONADO, MONIKA A.; KWIATKOWSKI, MARCEL; SCHLUTER, HARTMUT; ARNI, RAGHUVIR; SPENCER, PATRICK ; BETZEL, CHRISTIAN. Protein profile analysis of two australian snake venoms by one- dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS/MS experiments. Current Medicinal Chemistry, v. 24, n. 17, p. 1892-1908, 2017. DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170601073148

    Abstract: The Pseudechis colletti and Pseudechis butleri venoms were analyzed by 1-D gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides obtained from the protein bands. Both venoms contain highly potent pharmacologically active components, which were assigned to the following protein families: basic and acidic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), P-III metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), 5’- nucleotidases (5’-NTDs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), venom nerve growth factors (VNGFs) and post-synaptic neurotoxins. Considerable predominance of PLA2s over other toxins is a characteristic feature of both venoms. The major differences in the venom compositions are the higher concentration of SVMPs and CRISPs in the P. butleri venom, as well as the presence of post-synaptic neurotoxins. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a high concentration of proteins with myotoxic, coagulopathic and apoptotic activities. PLA2s are responsible for the myotoxic and anticoagulant effects observed in patients after envenomation (4). The other protein families, encountered in the two venoms, probably contribute to the major symptoms described for these venoms. These results explain the observed clinical effects of the black snake envenomation. The analyzed venoms contain group P-III metalloproteinases of medical importance with the potency to be used for diagnostic purposes of von Willebrand factor (vWF) disease, for regulation of vWF in thrombosis and haemostasis, for studying the function of the complement system in host defense and in the pathogenesis of diseases. Comparison of venomic data showed similarities in the major venom components of snakes from the genus Pseudechis, resulting in common clinical effects of envenomation, and demonstrating close relationships between venom toxins of Elapidae snakes.


  • IPEN-DOC 23047

    GARCIA-ALVAREZ, J.A.; FERNANDEZ-VAREA, J.M.; VANIN, V.R.; SANTOS, O.C.B.; BARROS, S.F.; MALAFRONTE, A.A.; RODRIGUES, C.L.; MARTINS, M.N.; KOSKINAS, M.F. ; MAIDANA, N.L.. Measurement of doubly differential electron bremsstrahlung cross sections at the end point (tip) for C, Al, Te, Ta and Au. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, v. 50, n. 15, p. 1-14, 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6455/aa7ac4

    Abstract: We have used the low-energy beam line of the São Paulo Microtron accelerator to study the maximum energy transfer point (tip) of electron–atom bremsstrahlung spectra for C, Al, Te, Ta and Au. Absolute cross sections differential in energy and angle of the emitted photon were measured for various electron kinetic energies between 20 and 100 keV, and photon emission angles of 35◦, 90◦ and 131◦. The bremsstrahlung spectra were collected with three HPGe detectors and their response functions were evaluated analytically. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry allowed us to obtain the thicknesses of the targets with good accuracy. We propose a simple model for the tip region of the bremsstrahlung spectrum emitted at a given angle, whose adjustable parameters are the mean energy of the incident beam and its spread as well as an amplitude. The model was fitted simultaneously to the pulse-height distributions recorded at the three angles, determining the doubly differential cross sections from the corresponding amplitudes. The measured values have uncertainties between 3% and 13%. The agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical partial-wave calculations of Pratt and co-workers depends on the analyzed element and angle but is generally satisfactory. In the case of Al and Au, the uncertainty attributed to the theory is probably overestimated.


  • IPEN-DOC 23046

    FUCASE, TAMARA M. ; SCIANI, JULIANA M.; CAVALCANTE, INGRID; VIALA, VINCENT L. ; CHAGAS, BRUNO B. ; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; SPENCER, PATRICK J. . Isolation and biochemical characterization of bradykinin-potentiating peptides from Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, v. 23, n. 33, p. 1-8, 2017. DOI: 10.1186/s40409-017-0124-9

    Abstract: Background: Venoms represent a still underexplored reservoir of bioactive components that might mitigate or cure diseases in conditions in which conventional therapy is ineffective. The bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) comprise a class of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The BPPs usually consist of oligopeptides with 5 to 13 residues with a high number of proline residues and the tripeptide Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP-tripeptide) in the C-terminus region and have a conserved N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. As a whole, the action of the BPPs on prey and snakebite victims results in the decrease of the blood pressure. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize novel BPPs from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. Methods: The crude venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and the peptide fraction (<7 kDa) was separated by reverse phase chromatography (RP-HPLC) and analyzed by ESI-IT-TOF-MS/MS. One new BPP was identified, synthetized and assayed for ACE inhibition and, in vivo, for edema potentiation. Results: Typical BPP signatures were identified in three RP-HPLC fractions. CID fragmentation presented the usual y-ion of the terminal P-P fragment as a predominant signal at m/z 213.1. De novo peptide sequencing identified one Bothrops-like BPP and one new BPP sequence. The new BPP was synthesized and showed poor inhibition over ACE, but displayed significant bradykinin-induced edema potentiation. Conclusions: So far, few BPPs are described in Viperinae, and based on the sequenced peptides, two non-canonical sequences were detected. The possible clinical role of this new peptides remains unclear.


  • IPEN-DOC 23045

    FREIRE, LUCIANO O. ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de . The role of nuclear power from a system engineering standpoint. World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, v. 7, n. 3, p. 167-188, 2017. DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.73015

    Abstract: This work proposed the application of system engineering methods to identify organizations vital for society, seeking development and well-being. System engineering requires the identification of blocks (or systems), identification of their service functions, identification of states, identification of required quality and identification of constraints. Analyzing modern societies, vital functions were identified and countries behavior was modeled, identifying their states. In this context, nuclear power was found to be fundamental for development and defense because of its inherent advantages for military naval purposes at war. Another striking conclusion is that nuclear power is the best solution for country energy security, more than to avoid climate changes, but to help the nation to resist climate changes. A solution to mitigate the high overnight costs of nuclear power was also proposed. It was demonstrated qualitatively that the adoption of dual purpose mobile nuclear power plants military performances, economic development and risks management.


  • IPEN-DOC 23044

    FERRAZ, CAUE de M. ; ARMELIN, MARIA J.A. ; OLIVEIRA, RENE R. ; OTUBO, LARISSA ; MARTINS, JOAO F.T. ; SANTOS, ROBINSON A. dos ; COSTA, FABIO E. ; CARVALHO, DIEGO V.S.; OMI, NELSON M. ; MESQUITA, C.H. ; HAMADA, MARGARIDA M. . Purification and crystal growth of the bismuth (III) iodide-influence of trace impurities on the crystal quality. Studies in Engineering and Technology, v. 4, n. 1, p. 70-84, 2017. DOI: 10.11114/set.v4i1.2566

    Abstract: This work describes the experimental procedure of purification and preparation of BiI3 crystals by Repeated Vertical Bridgman technique, aiming a future application of this semiconductor crystal as a room temperature radiation detector. The BiI3 powder used as raw material was purified three times and, at each purification, the crystal was evaluated by systematic measurements of the reduction of the impurities, crystalline structure, stoichiometry and surface morphology. The reduction of the trace metal impurities in the BiI3, at each purification, was analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), in order to evaluate the efficiency of the purification technique established in this work. It was demonstrated that the Repeated Bridgman technique is effective to reduce the concentration of many impurities in BiI3, such as Ag, As, Br, Cr, K, Mo, Na and Sb. The crystalline structure of the BiI3 crystal purified twice and three times was similar to BiI3 pattern. However, for BiI3 powder and purified once, an intensity contribution of the BiOI was observed in the diffractograms. Improvement in the stoichiometric ratio was observed at each purification step, as well as the crystal surface morphology.


  • IPEN-DOC 23041

    HAJJ, T.M.E.; SILVA, P.S.C. ; GANDOLLA, M.P.A.; DANTAS, G.A.S.A.; SANTOS, A.; DELBONI JUNIOR, H.. Radiological hazard indices and elemental composition of Brazilian and Swiss ornamental rocks. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 5, n. 2, p. 01-29, 2017. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v5i2.269

    Abstract: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the radiological risk index of ornamental rocks sold both in Brazil and Europe and to correlate its radioactive content with their chemical composition. The 238U, 232Th and 40K mean values were 62 ± 65, 122 ± 111, 1126 ± 516 Bq kg-1 for Brazilian and 93 ± 59, 70 ± 67 and 1005 ± 780 Bq kg-1 for Swiss samples, respectively. The radiological index: radium equivalent, external hazard index, absorbed dose rate in air, annual gonadal equivalent dose, annual effective dose equivalent and excess lifetime cancer risk for Brazilian and Swiss samples were calculated. The main contribution for the radiological indices observed was the radionuclide 232Th, which is associated with REE, Br, Hf, Na, Rb, Sb and Zr in the rock matrix.


  • IPEN-DOC 23043

    FERMINO, MARISE L.; DYLON, L.S.D.; CECILIO, NERRY T.; SANTOS, SOFIA N. ; TOSCANO, MARTA A.; DIAS-BARUFFI, MARCELO; ROQUE-BARREIRA, MARIA C.; RABINOVICH, GABRIEL A.; BERNARDES, EMERSON S. . Lack of galectin-3 increases Jagged1/Notch activation in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and promotes dysregulation of T helper cell polarization. Molecular Immunology, v. 76, p. 22-34, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2016.06.005

    Abstract: Galectin-3, an endogenous glycan-binding protein, is abundantly expressed at sites of inflammation and immune cell activation. Although this lectin has been implicated in the control of T helper (Th) polarization, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-3 during the course of experimental Leishmania major infection using galectin-3-deficient (Lgals3−/−) mice in a BALB/c background and the involvement of Notch signaling pathway in this process. Lgals3−/− mice displayed an augmented, although mixed Th1/Th2 responses compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Concomitantly, lymph node and footpad lesion cells from infected Lgals3−/− mice showed enhanced levels of Notch signaling components (Notch-1, Jagged1, Jagged2 and Notch target gene Hes-1). Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from uninfected Lgals3−/− mice also displayed increased expression of the Notch ligands Delta-like-4 and Jagged1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, activation of Notch signaling in BMDCs upon stimulation with Jagged1 was more pronounced in Lgals3−/− BMDCs compared to WT BMDCs; this condition resulted in increased production of IL-6 by Lgals3−/− BMDCs. Finally, addition of exogenous galectin-3 to Lgals3−/− BMDCs partially reverted the increased sensitivity to Jagged1 stimulation. Our results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 regulates Notch signaling activation in BMDCs and influences polarization of T helper responses, thus increasing susceptibility to L. major infection.


  • IPEN-DOC 23040

    DURAZZO, M. ; SALIBA-SILVA, A.M. ; MARTINS, I.C. ; CARVALHO, E.F.U. de ; RIELLA, H.G. . Manufacturing low enriched uranium metal by magnesiothermic reduction of UF4. Annals of Nuclear Energy, v. 110, p. 874-885, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2017.07.033

    Abstract: This work presents an experimental description of thermal and physical studies to attain a practical manufacturing process of uranium metal enriched to 20% U235 (LEU – Low Enriched Uranium) by metallothermic reduction of UF4, with nuclear purity, for reduced amounts (1000 g of uranium) and with radioactive safety. Uranium metal is needed to produce nuclear fuel elements based on uranium silicide (intermetallic U3Si2) and irradiation targets to produce Mo99. This process is a part of Brazilian efforts to fabricate the fuel elements for its research reactors, primarily aiming at the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The magnesiothermic reduction is influenced by variables which are related to the starting material UF4 and the thermal conditions for its reduction. These variables are investigated. The physical arrangement of the crucible/reduction reactor/furnace system and the management of the furnace thermal input in the reduction reactor during the heating were studied. Thermal simulation experiments provided delineation for the reactants’ thermal progress before the ignition of the metalothermic reaction. The heat input to the reduction system has proved to be the main variable that influenced the efficiency of the process. The levels of metallic yield and reproducibility have been improved, making the production process reproductive and economically viable. The typical yield in the production of uranium metal was above 80%. Unrecovered uranium metal is present in the MgF2 slag and can be recovered at the level of 96% yield. The process of recovering the uranium from the slag is also discussed.


  • IPEN-DOC 23037

    BREARD, ARNAUD; CHADEBEC, OLIVIER N.; KRAHENBUHL, LAURENT F.; SARTORI, CARLOS A.F. ; VOLLAIRE, CHRISTIAN; FABREGUE, OLIVIER; LI, ZHAO; MUYLAERT, RAFAEL P.B.; TAVERNIER, FRANCOIS; VOYER, DAMIEN. Overview on the evolution of near magnetic field coupling prediction using equivalent multipole spherical harmonic sources. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, v. 59, n. 2, p. 584-592, 2017. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2016.2638960

    Abstract: In the electromagnetic compatibility behavior of power electronic converters, parasitic magnetic couplings between components are one of the main causes of dysfunctions or poor filtering. These couplings may be either conducted or near-field interferences. To handle interaction problems, full knowledge of these magnetic couplings is essential. This paper is an overview of the work on near magnetic field interference undertaken in the last 15 years by the International Maxwell Laboratory. This paper details a predictive method that accurately and efficiently calculates near magnetic field coupling between two sources. The method uses near-field multipolar expansion in spherical harmonics of electromagnetic sources to determine close magnetic coupling between two sources from their equivalent models. This paper also shows how theoretical developments of large loop antennas have evolved from the van Veen antenna, a model with only two degrees of freedom, to a more complex model in terms of degrees, order, and types of harmonics. In parallel, it describes developments in the measurement method that provides input to the theoretical model. To illustrate how the research has evolved, we discuss coupling between two complex sources to assess the accuracy of this predictive method.


  • IPEN-DOC 23034

    CARVALHO, CECI N.; GRAZZIOTIN-SOARES, RENATA; CANDEIRO, GEORGE T. de M.; MARTINEZ, LUIS G. ; SOUZA, JULIANA P. de ; OLIVEIRA, PATRICIA S.; BAUER, JOSE; GAVINI, GIULIO. Micro push-out bond strength and bioactivity analysis of a bioceramic root canal sealer. Iranian Endodontic Journal, v. 12, n. 3, p. 343-348, 2017.

    Abstract: Introduction: Bioactive endodontic sealers have been developed to improve the quality of root canal obturation. EndoSequence Bioceramic (BC) Sealer is amongst calcium silicatebased materials recently developed for permanent root canal filling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of BC Sealer and its micro push-out bond strength to dentin compared to AH-Plus (AH) sealer. Methods and Materials: To perform the micro push-out test, 24 root canals of mandibular premolars were instrumented and divided into two groups (n=12). Each root was cut into 4 slices and lumens of the canals were filled with the sealers and submitted to micro push-out test. Failure mode was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bioactivity of BC sealer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bioactivity assessments were reported descriptively. Bond strength data were analyzed by parametric ttest (α=5%). Results: In micro push-out test AH had higher bond strength mean values (16.29 MPa) than BC sealer (9.48 MPa) (P<0.05). Both groups had low amount of adhesive failure. SEM showed the presence of a mineral precipitate after 30 days and EDS analysis showed that those precipitates have high proportion of Ca. XRD showed peaks of crystalline phases of calcium carbonate compatible with the bioactivity. Conclusion: BC sealer showed indications of bioactivity and lower bond strength to dentine compared to AH.


  • IPEN-DOC 23033

    CAMPOS, L.M.P. ; ZAHARESCU, T.; BOARO, L.C.; SANTOS, L.K.G. ; SANTOS, T.M.R.; FERREIRA, H.P. ; PARRA, D.F. . Thermal and mechanical behavior evaluation of dental composites filled with irradiated montmorillonite. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 134, n. 29, p. 45063-1 - 45063-6, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/app.45063

    Abstract: The effects of pre-irradiation treatment (dose ranged from 25 to 50 kGy) of MMT (Montmorillonite) nanoclay added as filler (50 wt %) in experimental dental composites was studied; composites containing similar amounts of non-irradiated MMT were also tested. The thermal stability of the resulting material was tested by thermogravimetric analysis ranging from 50 to 800 8C. Elastic modulus and flexural strength were determined by the three point bending test (n510). Data for elastic modulus was analyzed using two way ANOVA/Tukey’s test. Data for flexural strength was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis/Tukey’s test. For all tests, the global significance level was 5%. The modifications in elastic modulus and flexural strength with applied dose were characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis allows the depicting of intercalation phenomenon between base-polymer and nanophase. The polymeric system modified with MMT nanoparticles showed higher thermal stability by delaying the thermal degradation, compared to the control group, and the radiation dose influenced this thermal behavior directly. However, the applied dose was not sufficient to improve the mechanical properties significantly, which is related to the interaction between MMT and polymeric matrix. The pre-irradiation treatment of MMT nanoclay phase was useful for attaining efficient interaction between the two constitutive phases of the polymeric systems based bis-GMA/TEGDMA [bisphenol A bis(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl)ether/triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate], modified with MMT nanoparticles, because the polymer component was not affected.


  • IPEN-DOC 23032

    CAMPOS, M.P. ; COSTA, L.J.P.; NISTI, M.B. ; MAZZILLI, B.P. . Phosphogypsum recycling in the building materials industry: assessment of the radon exhalation rate. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, v. 172, p. 232-236, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.04.002

    Abstract: Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks. The radon exhalation rate from plates varied from 0.19 ± 0.06 Bq m 2 h 1, for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, from 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m 2 h 1, for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. As for the bricks, the results ranged from 0.11 ± 0.01 Bq m 2 h 1, for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, to 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq m 2 h 1, for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. The results obtained in this study for the radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum plates and bricks are of the same order of magnitude than those from ordinary building materials. So, it can be concluded that the recycling of phosphogypsum as building material is a safe practice, since no additional health risk is expected from the radiological point of view.


Próxima página

A pesquisa no RD utiliza os recursos de busca da maioria das bases de dados. No entanto algumas dicas podem auxiliar para obter um resultado mais pertinente.

É possível efetuar a busca de um autor ou um termo em todo o RD, por meio do Buscar no Repositório , isto é, o termo solicitado será localizado em qualquer campo do RD. No entanto esse tipo de pesquisa não é recomendada a não ser que se deseje um resultado amplo e generalizado.

A pesquisa apresentará melhor resultado selecionando um dos filtros disponíveis em Navegar

Os filtros disponíveis em Navegar tais como: Coleções, Ano de publicação, Títulos, Assuntos, Autores, Revista, Tipo de publicação são autoexplicativos. O filtro, Autores IPEN apresenta uma relação com os autores vinculados ao IPEN; o ID Autor IPEN diz respeito ao número único de identificação de cada autor constante no RD e sob o qual estão agrupados todos os seus trabalhos independente das variáveis do seu nome; Tipo de acesso diz respeito à acessibilidade do documento, isto é , sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, ID RT apresenta a relação dos relatórios técnicos, restritos para consulta das comunidades indicadas.

A opção Busca avançada utiliza os conectores da lógica boleana, é o melhor recurso para combinar chaves de busca e obter documentos relevantes à sua pesquisa, utilize os filtros apresentados na caixa de seleção para refinar o resultado de busca. Pode-se adicionar vários filtros a uma mesma busca.


Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

Autor: Maprelian

Título: loss of coolant

Tipo de publicação: Texto completo de evento

Ano de publicação: 2015

Para indexação dos documentos é utilizado o Thesaurus do INIS, especializado na área nuclear e utilizado em todos os países membros da International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA , por esse motivo, utilize os termos de busca de assunto em inglês; isto não exclui a busca livre por palavras, apenas o resultado pode não ser tão relevante ou pertinente.

95% do RD apresenta o texto completo do documento com livre acesso, para aqueles que apresentam o significa que e o documento está sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, solicita-se nesses casos contatar a Biblioteca do IPEN, .

Ao efetuar a busca por um autor o RD apresentará uma relação de todos os trabalhos depositados no RD. No lado direito da tela são apresentados os coautores com o número de trabalhos produzidos em conjunto bem como os assuntos abordados e os respectivos anos de publicação agrupados.

O RD disponibiliza um quadro estatístico de produtividade, onde é possível visualizar o número dos trabalhos agrupados por tipo de coleção, a medida que estão sendo depositados no RD.

Na página inicial nas referências são sinalizados todos os autores IPEN, ao clicar nesse símbolo será aberta uma nova página correspondente à aquele autor – trata-se da página do pesquisador.

Na página do pesquisador, é possível verificar, as variações do nome, a relação de todos os trabalhos com texto completo bem como um quadro resumo numérico; há links para o Currículo Lattes e o Google Acadêmico ( quando esse for informado).



O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

Repositórios Digitais Institucionais: a experiência

do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares


Mery P. Zamudio Igami

Biblioteca Terezine Arantes Ferraz

1 Repositórios Digitais Institucionais – RDI

A tecnologia da informação modificou significativamente todas as atividades rotineiras da sociedade. O surgimento das redes de comunicação transformou o ambiente onde elas atuam mudando o conceito de espaço e tempo no âmbito da comunicação e informação pela instantaneidade da transmissão de dados.

Na área de comunicação científica não foi diferente. Toda a cadeia de produção, disseminação, publicação e armazenamento de documentos científicos experimentou uma grande transformação, impactando de forma positiva a produção e consumo da informação científica na área acadêmica. O surgimento da internet e da WWW, na década de 80, aceleraram as mudanças na forma de comunicar e disseminar os trabalhos acadêmicos que passaram do suporte exclusivamente em papel para o suporte digital.

Na mesma época houve uma significativa crise mundial devido aos altos preços praticados pelas editoras no processo de assinatura das publicações periódicas, tornando inviável a sustentação das coleções pelas bibliotecas e afetando diretamente a consulta pelos usuários. Como reação da própria comunidade científica surgiu então o movimento de livre acesso à informação científica, mais conhecido por Open Access Iniciative (KURAMOTO, 2012).

Esse movimento defende a disponibilização na internet da literatura acadêmica e científica permitindo que seja lida, descarregada, distribuída, impressa e pesquisada livremente.

É importante o registro histórico desse movimento não somente porque está diretamente relacionado à criação dos RDIs, mas também porque ele possibilitou várias mudanças estruturais no fluxo da comunicação científica. Os editores perderam a exclusividade de distribuição (comercialização) da pesquisa científica, uma vez que na era digital é possível que isso seja realizado de forma descentralizada e por iniciativa de cada autor.

1.1 O movimento do Open Access Iniciative - OAI

A partir de 1999, os movimentos em favor do acesso livre à literatura científica, principalmente à literatura produzida sob financiamento público, consolidaram-se.

A comunidade acadêmica envolvida nesses movimentos corroborou o seu apoio por meio de declarações formais, dentro das quais se destaca a Declaração de Budapest – BOAI –1 em 2002, onde foram emitidos os conceitos básicos do OAI, e a Declaração de Berlim2 em 2003, onde se destacou a natureza institucional dos repositórios digitais de livre acesso como um espaço organizado baseado em regras de utilização que conferem credibilidade aos materiais publicados e em políticas de arquivamento a longo prazo.

O movimento Open Archives Iniciative desenvolveu padrões de interoperabilidade buscando facilitar a comunicação eficiente de conteúdo. Foram também estabelecidas duas modalidades para viabilizar a disponibilidade dos conteúdos: a via verde que diz respeito ao autodepósito nos RDs e a via dourada que inclui as revistas que publicam os artigos com livre acesso.

O primeiro repositório digital ( )3 foi instalado no laboratório de física, em Los Álamos, EU, coordenado pelo físico Paul Ginsparg (1996), motivado pela insatisfação com os rumos na política de aquisição das publicações científicas e a crescente inviabilidade das bibliotecas americanas de manter as coleções atualizadas. Daquela época para a atual aconteceram inúmeras mudanças positivas nos modelos de funcionamento dos repositórios promovidas pela evolução da TI.


1 Budapest Open Access Iniciative -

2 Open Access -

3 General Information about Arxiv -

Não existe um modelo único para a criação dos RDIs; cada instituição define a política de depósito adequada ao contexto da sua comunidade. O importante é que essa comunidade valide e utilize a plataforma tornando-a uma vitrine da sua produção científica.

No país, o movimento de Acesso Aberto e construção de Repositórios Digitais Institucionais tiveram um grande incentivo e apoio técnico do Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia – (IBICT) (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA, 2009). De acordo com o Diretório internacional de RDIs – o DOAR4, até o momento, há no país 153 repositórios digitais em funcionamento, dos quais a maioria é mantida pelas instituições onde a comunidade produz os trabalhos científicos. Desses RDIs, 74% utilizam o software Dspace5.

1.2 O Projeto de Lei sobre os Repositórios Digitais

Em 2007, foi apresentado o Projeto de Lei no senado PL1120/2007 (BRASIL, 2007), que torna obrigatório nas universidades e institutos de pesquisa o desenvolvimento e implantação de RDIs nas instituições de origem, bem como torna obrigatório o autodepósito da produção científica por parte dos seus pesquisadores. Além disso, o Projeto de Lei determina a formação de uma comissão de alto nível para discutir, propor e estabelecer uma política de livre acesso à informação científica. Além de simplesmente criar mecanismos de disseminação da informação científica, o Projeto propõe a criação de uma comissão para discutir políticas e estabelecer diretrizes a serem adotadas em nível nacional pelas instituições que produzem informação científica.

1.3 O que são os RDIs?

Os RDIs constituem atualmente um avanço na gestão do conhecimento intelectual. Podem receber diversas denominações tais como equipamentos institucionais, observatórios digitais, instrumentos ou ferramentas de gestão de conhecimento e outras.


4 The Directory of Open Access Repositories – OpenDOAR -

5 Software livre para construção de Repositorios Institucionais Digitais (Dspace) -

Um dos aspectos mais importantes dos RDIs é que eles estão inseridos na política institucional de gestão do conhecimento e são essencialmente instrumentos gerenciais de onde se obtém indicadores para auxiliar na gestão da política científica das instituições de pesquisa.

Sob a ótica documentária um RDI constitui um serviço de informação científica em ambiente digital, interoperável e de acesso aberto, dedicado ao gerenciamento da produção científica de uma instituição. Contempla a reunião, armazenamento, organização, preservação, recuperação e, sobretudo, a ampla disseminação e visibilidade da informação científica produzida na instituição.

1.3.1 O que caracteriza um repositório digital?

a) a organização, armazenamento, acesso e distribuição de documentos digitais;

b) a utilização de padrões abertos acessibilidade;

c) as funcionalidades que o software selecionado permite;

d) a utilização de metadados com padrão internacional – interoperabilidade;

e) o arquivo digital anexado;

f) o acesso de buscadores para elaboração de rankings internacionais - visibilidade;

g) o autodepósito dos trabalhos;

h) a monitoração, controle e elaboração de indicadores.


O prestígio de uma instituição de pesquisa está fortemente vinculado aos resultados dos elementos intangíveis, por exemplo, qualidade no ensino da pós-graduação, e tangíveis como os resultados da pesquisa, entre eles a Produção científica. Tradicionalmente, o IPEN, por meio da sua unidade de informação, mantém a sua produção científica organizada e atualizada desde sua criação em 1956. No entanto, devido ao avanço da tecnologia da informação, tornou-se necessário atualizar a plataforma gerenciadora dessa informação já armazenada, com a consequente modernização no processo de gestão do capital intelectual.

No decorrer de 2013, seguindo outras instituições no país, como por exemplo, a Universidade de São Paulo, a Universidade Estadual Paulista e a Universidade Estadual de Campinas, a Direção do IPEN decidiu criar o seu repositório, uma vez que a matéria prima para concretizar esta ação já se encontrava disponível e organizada de tal forma que se garantiria a sustentabilidade do RDI.

A política de gestão da produção científica é uma prática rotineira no IPEN. Diferentemente da maioria dos repositórios em funcionamento, o RDI do IPEN já nasce com um volume significativo de matéria-prima digital organizada, com políticas definidas de auto arquivamento e de preservação da produção científica.

Porém, o fator determinante de sucesso foi o modelo de indexação e organização dos documentos adotado pela biblioteca desde o início em 1976, quando ainda se constituía em uma base de dados referencial. Este fato facilitou o processo de migração e compatibilização dos metadados para o novo padrão internacional adotado, o Dublin Core, garantindo interoperabilidade com outros repositórios digitais, uma das principais características dos RDIs.

Em novembro de 2013, foram iniciados os trabalhos de construção do RDI do IPEN. Inicialmente foram programadas visitas do grupo de informática e da biblioteca a instituições com experiências bem-sucedidas, como, por exemplo, o Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais – (INPE) em São José dos Campos e a Universidade de São Paulo- USP, com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o projeto de RDIs dessas instituições e selecionar o modelo mais adequado à realidade do IPEN.

As visitas técnicas embasaram a decisão de selecionar o software Dspace para confecção do repositório do IPEN. O Dspace é um software livre especializado no gerenciamento de repositórios resultante de um projeto colaborativo da MIT Libraries e da Hewlett-Packard Company, amplamente utilizado no mundo. No Brasil, graças ao incentivo do IBICT em Brasília, o DSpace é utilizado por 75% das instituições que possuem repositórios.

2.1 O processo de migração

Em dezembro de 2013, foi iniciado o processo de criação do novo repositório do IPEN, após um estudo preliminar do software e contratação de uma empresa para a capacitação das equipes da biblioteca e da informática.

Nos meses seguintes foram efetuados os testes de implantação do Dspace, configuração, desenho da nova arquitetura do banco de dados, compatibilização e criação de novos metadados, desenvolvimento de funcionalidades.

Na época, a produção científica contabilizada era de 19.200 itens. A migração gradual desses itens iniciou-se em julho de 2014.

Internamente, além de todas as funções inerentes e habituais a um repositório, o diferencial do RDI do IPEN diz respeito à integração com os dados registrados no sistema de informação gerencial e planejamento do instituto, o SIGEPI. Trata-se da uma funcionalidade especial, desenvolvida em ambiente externo ao Dspace, porém acrescentada no momento do registro do documento no Dspace via metadado específico, de tal forma que cada trabalho registrado no RD se correlaciona, automaticamente com a atividade do Plano Diretor à qual o autor do IPEN está vinculado.

Para essa finalidade foi efetuado um exaustivo trabalho de identificação dos nomes completos dos autores do IPEN (lista de autoridades), com as suas respectivas variáveis na forma de citação e agrupamento dos trabalhos. Foi atribuído um número único de identificação para cada autor, o ID autor IPEN, formato semelhante ao Researcher ID utilizado pela base internacional Web of Science. Essa facilidade constituiu um filtro que ao ser acionado reúne e apresenta rapidamente todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor.

Ao RDI está vinculada também uma tabela estatística, atualizada on-line a cada registro introduzido. Essa funcionalidade destina-se à obtenção de dados para a elaboração de índices e quadros estatísticos a serem confeccionados fora do ambiente do Dspace para subsidiar os pesquisadores e os gestores do IPEN, com informações para a monitoração, administração e elaboração de indicadores científicos fornecidos para o Plano Diretor do IPEN, o relatório anual da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior( CAPES) e outros, bem como para cumprir as exigências dos órgãos financiadores de pesquisa.

O modelo adotado para a coleta dos trabalhos também difere de outros. Nesta primeira etapa foi considerado mais conveniente o serviço de informação (biblioteca) responsabilizar-se pela coleta, depósito e complementação dos dados, utilizando as fontes de informação nacionais e internacionais. Assim, a unidade de informação realiza periodicamente a verificação dos trabalhos publicados pelos pesquisadores nas bases Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, INIS e Currículo Lattes. Após a eliminação das duplicatas e localização dos documentos na íntegra efetua-se o depósito no RDI.

Trata-se de um modelo de depósito que esta sendo testado, há vantagens e desvantagens. A principal vantagem diz respeito à economia de tempo do pesquisador uma vez que se elimina a obrigatoriedade do autodeposito, tornando, porém, imprescindível por parte do pesquisador à atualização do seu Currículo Lattes. A maior desvantagem foi absorvida pela Biblioteca, qual seja a coleta periódica dos documentos publicados bem como a localização e obtenção da evidência dos mesmos.

Importante registrar que a construção do RD foi uma iniciativa muito nova na instituição, que demandou um trabalho detalhado, cuidadoso e gradual das equipes de desenvolvimento de sistemas e da biblioteca, dado a pouca familiaridade com a nova plataforma. Alia-se a esse fato a opção de utilizar um software livre, onde certas funcionalidades ainda não foram desenvolvidas.

Em setembro de 2014, após oito meses de trabalho, as equipes conseguiram migrar 23%, das coleções, foi uma tarefa que demandou ajustes, adequações, testes e decisões internas, dado o grande nível de detalhamento dos dados, motivo de comemoração das equipes, após cada etapa finalizada e bem sucedida. Contamos também com a assessoria de uma empresa especializada no assunto, a qual guiou a equipe da informática em cada funcionalidade desenvolvida. Nesse ritmo de trabalho, foi possível completar o processo de migração em fevereiro de 2015. Finalmente, em junho desse mesmo ano, o RDI foi disponibilizado na Internet.

2.2 Desempenho do RDI em 2015

Atualmente o novo RDI:

- dispõe de uma identidade própria e permanente, (ex: );

- utiliza as estatísticas de uso do Google Analytics;

- é reconhecido pelo Google Scholar e outras máquinas de busca da Internet;

- participa dos rankings internacionais de repositórios institucionais (Ex: Webometrics);

- tem registro nos Diretórios Internacionais de RIs (Ex. DOAR);

- interopera com sistemas congêneres.

Conforme foi mencionado, a criação do RDI e a migração dos dados constitui a primeira etapa dentro de um projeto maior, qual seja institucionalizar e operacionalizar a gestão da produção científica do IPEN. Após o processo se consolidar em entrar em rotina de funcionamento, as próximas etapas a serem desenvolvidas pelas equipes, dizem respeito à:

- automação da coleta dos documentos;

- otimização das ferramentas de busca;

- obtenção de relatórios estatísticos customizados;

- otimização do lay-out do RDI;

- acréscimo de novas coleções;

- desenvolvimento de novas funcionalidades.

A pesquisa no RDI é muito simples e segue os padrões da maioria das bases de dados. É possível pesquisar por autor, título, assunto, ID de autor IPEN, ano de publicação, combinar palavras- chave de busca e assim por diante. Apresenta também uma tabela estatística funcionando em tempo real, distribuída por nível monográfico; isso permite que a direção e o corpo técnico científico acompanhe a evolução quantitativa dos documentos depositados no RDI.

Uma das últimas funcionalidades acrescentadas ao RD, diz respeito à sinalização dos autores do IPEN. Ao clicar no símbolo do autor é possível acessar a página do pesquisador, onde se apresentam os seguintes dados: as variáveis do nome, uma tabela com todos os trabalhos constantes no RDI , bem como um quadro resumo numérico. Dessa forma o autor pode visualizar, acessar e monitorar à sua produção científica com o texto completo de forma rápida e simples . O quadro resumo se configura ainda como uma linha do tempo para o autor.

Por se constituir em um equipamento totalmente apoiado na tecnologia da informação, o RDI é um recurso institucional dinâmico sujeito a constantes atualizações e melhorias, o qual deve garantir a confiabilidade dos dados providos bem como assegurar a sua sustentabilidade.

3 Referências bibliográficas

BRASIL. Projeto de Lei do Senado 1120/2007 Dispõe sobre o processo de disseminação da produção técnico-científica pelas instituições de ensino superior no Brasil e dá outras providências. Diário oficial da Republica Federativa , Brasília, DF, Disponível em: Acesso em: set. 2014.

INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE INFORMAÇÃO EM CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA - IBICT Repositórios digitais. Site institucional. Brasília: 2009. Disponível em: Acesso em set. 2014.

KURAMOTO, H. Acesso livre: como tudo começou. Brasília, 2012. Blog. Disponível em: Acesso em: set. 2014.

SP, janeiro de 2016