PATRICK JACK SPENCER

Resumo

Possui graduação em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (1991), mestrado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (1995) e doutorado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000) tendo sido bolsista sandwich no US Army Medical Research Institute for Infeccious Diseases (98-99). É responsável pelo Biotério de criação e manutenção de animais de laboratório do IPEN. Tem experiência na área de Bioquímica, com ênfase em Proteínas, atuando principalmente nos seguintes temas: veneno, proteínas, bothrops, irradiação e miotoxina.(Texto extraído do Currículo Lattes em 22 dez. 2021)

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  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29112
    Antibodies as snakebite antivenoms
    2022 - SILVA, WILMAR D. da; ANDRADE, SONIA A. de; MEGALE, ANGELA A.A.; SOUZA, DANIEL A. de; SANTANNA, OSVALDO A.; MAGNOLI, FABIO C.; GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; GODOI, KEMILY S.; SALADINI, LUCAS Y.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.
    Snakebite envenomation is considered a neglected tropical disease, affecting tens of thousands of people each year. The recommended treatment is the use of antivenom, which is composed of immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments obtained from the plasma of animals hyperimmunized with one (monospecific) or several (polyspecific) venoms. In this review, the efforts made in the improvement of the already available antivenoms and the development of new antivenoms, focusing on snakes of medical importance from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, are described. Some antivenoms currently used are composed of whole IgGs, whereas others use F(ab’)2 fragments. The classic methods of attaining snake antivenoms are presented, in addition to new strategies to improve their effectiveness. Punctual changes in immunization protocols, in addition to the use of cross-reactivity between venoms from different snakes for the manufacture of more potent and widely used antivenoms, are presented. It is known that venoms are a complex mixture of components; however, advances in the field of antivenoms have shown that there are key toxins that, if effectively blocked, are capable of reversing the condition of in vivo envenomation. These studies provide an opportunity for the use of monoclonal antibodies in the development of new-generation antivenoms. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are described as a possible alternative for the production of antivenoms, regardless of the venom. This review also highlights the challenges associated with their development.