PATRICK JACK SPENCER

Resumo

Possui graduação em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (1991), mestrado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (1995) e doutorado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000) tendo sido bolsista sandwich no US Army Medical Research Institute for Infeccious Diseases (98-99). É responsável pelo Biotério de criação e manutenção de animais de laboratório do IPEN. Tem experiência na área de Bioquímica, com ênfase em Proteínas, atuando principalmente nos seguintes temas: veneno, proteínas, bothrops, irradiação e miotoxina.(Texto extraído do Currículo Lattes em 22 dez. 2021)

Projetos de Pesquisa
Unidades Organizacionais
Cargo

Resultados de Busca

Agora exibindo 1 - 10 de 56
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29948
    Comparing traditional and toxin-oriented approaches towards antivenom production against Bitis arietans snake venom
    2023 - GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; GODOI, KEMILY S. de; MEGALE, ANGELA A.A.; SILVA, CRISTIANE C.F. da; KODAMA, ROBERTO T.; CAJADO-CARVALHO, DANIELA; IWAI, LEO K.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.; SILVA, WILMAR D. da
    Accidents with snakes are responsible for about 32,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa, caused mostly by snakes from the genus Bitis, in particular Bitis arietans. B. arietans venom is composed of a complex mixture of toxins, mainly metalloproteases, serine proteases, phospholipases, lectins, and disintegrins. In this work, we compared two approaches to anti-B. arietans antivenom production: immunization with crude snake venom (“traditional approach”) and immunization with selected key toxins isolated from the snake venom (“toxin oriented” approach). Fractions from B. arietans venom were isolated by size exclusion chromatography. Crude venom and samples containing serine proteases or metalloproteases were selected for the immunization of BALB/c mice. Anti-B. arietans and anti-serine proteases plasmas showed a similar recognition profile and higher titers and affinity than the anti-metalloproteases plasma. Cross-recognition of other Bitis venoms was observed, but with low intensity. Although the plasma of all experimental groups inhibited the enzymatic activity of B. arietans venom in vitro, in vivo protection was not achieved. Our results have shown limitations in both approaches considered. Based on this, we proposed a model of polyclonal, species-specific, monovalent antivenoms that could be used as a base to produce customizable polyvalent sera for use in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29689
    Anti-Metalloproteases
    2023 - GODOI, KEMILY S. de; GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; SILVA, WILMAR D. da
    Bitis arietans is a medically important snake found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The envenomation is characterized by local and systemic effects, and the lack of antivenoms aggravates the treatment. This study aimed to identify venom toxins and develop antitoxins. The F2 fraction obtained from Bitis arietans venom (BaV) demonstrated the presence of several proteins in its composition, including metalloproteases. Titration assays carried out together with the immunization of mice demonstrated the development of anti-F2 fraction antibodies by the animals. The determination of the affinity of antibodies against different Bitis venoms was evaluated, revealing that only BaV had peptides recognized by anti-F2 fraction antibodies. In vivo analyses demonstrated the hemorrhagic capacity of the venom and the effectiveness of the antibodies in inhibiting up to 80% of the hemorrhage and 0% of the lethality caused by BaV. Together, the data indicate: (1) the prevalence of proteins that influence hemostasis and envenomation; (2) the effectiveness of antibodies in inhibiting specific activities of BaV; and (3) isolation and characterization of toxins can become crucial steps in the development of new alternative treatments. Thus, the results obtained help in understand
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29496
    Action of bromelain and ficin on horse anti Bothrops sp venom antibodies
    2022 - MARQUES, RODOLFO F.; QUINTILIO, WAGNER; KNIRSCH, MARCOS C.; FUCASE, TAMARA M.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; STEPHANO, MARCO A.
    The treatment with hyperimmune sera constitute the only specific and effective therapy available against snakebite envenomation, most common in developing countries. Serum quality is an important factor on patient recovery time and in the incidence of death and permanent disability. To date, most sera consist of pepsin digested IgG antibodies harvested from hyperimmune animals. The use of animal derived enzymes, such as pepsin, to digest IgG, constitute a source of adventitious agents and contaminants, such as porcine circovirus. The present study aims to evaluate the use of the plant derived enzymes bromelain and ficin, as an alternative to pepsin. To this purpose, horse serum immunized against Bothrops venoms was purified with caprylic acid and digested with bromelain or ficin. SDS-PAGE results evidence the formation of F(ab)’2 fragments and suggest that a digestion time superior to 8 hours may be required to completely digest the antibodies with bromelain or ficin. F(ab)’2 fragments obtained by digestion with either bromelain or ficin digestion preserved the ability to recognize Bothrops sp. venom in western blotting assays. Therefore, both enzymes are suitable for use in large-scale production, minimizing contamination risks and increasing safety and efficiency of serotherapy treatments.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29112
    Antibodies as snakebite antivenoms
    2022 - SILVA, WILMAR D. da; ANDRADE, SONIA A. de; MEGALE, ANGELA A.A.; SOUZA, DANIEL A. de; SANTANNA, OSVALDO A.; MAGNOLI, FABIO C.; GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; GODOI, KEMILY S.; SALADINI, LUCAS Y.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.
    Snakebite envenomation is considered a neglected tropical disease, affecting tens of thousands of people each year. The recommended treatment is the use of antivenom, which is composed of immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments obtained from the plasma of animals hyperimmunized with one (monospecific) or several (polyspecific) venoms. In this review, the efforts made in the improvement of the already available antivenoms and the development of new antivenoms, focusing on snakes of medical importance from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, are described. Some antivenoms currently used are composed of whole IgGs, whereas others use F(ab’)2 fragments. The classic methods of attaining snake antivenoms are presented, in addition to new strategies to improve their effectiveness. Punctual changes in immunization protocols, in addition to the use of cross-reactivity between venoms from different snakes for the manufacture of more potent and widely used antivenoms, are presented. It is known that venoms are a complex mixture of components; however, advances in the field of antivenoms have shown that there are key toxins that, if effectively blocked, are capable of reversing the condition of in vivo envenomation. These studies provide an opportunity for the use of monoclonal antibodies in the development of new-generation antivenoms. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are described as a possible alternative for the production of antivenoms, regardless of the venom. This review also highlights the challenges associated with their development.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 28693
    Synthesis, in vitro testing, and biodistribution of surfactant-free radioactive nanoparticles for cancer treatment
    2022 - SOUZA, CARLA D. de; BARBEZAN, ANGELICA B.; ROSERO, WILMMER A.A.; SANTOS, SOFIA N. dos; CARVALHO, DIEGO V. de S.; ZEITUNI, CARLOS A.; BERNARDES, EMERSON S.; VIEIRA, DANIEL P.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S.; ROSTELATO, MARIA E.C.M.
    New forms of cancer treatment, which are effective, have simple manufacturing processes, and easily transportable, are of the utmost necessity. In this work, a methodology for the synthesis of radioactive Gold-198 nanoparticles without the use of surfactants was described. The nuclear activated Gold-198 foils were transformed into H198AuCl4 by dissolution using aqua regia, following a set of steps in a specially designed leak-tight setup. Gold-198 nanoparticles were synthesized using a citrate reduction stabilized with PEG. In addition, TEM results for the non-radioactive product presented an average size of 11.0 nm. The DLS and results for the radioactive 198AuNPs presented an average size of 8.7 nm. Moreover, the DLS results for the PEG-198AuNPs presented a 32.6 nm average size. Cell line tests showed no cytotoxic effect in any period and the concentrations were evaluated. Furthermore, in vivo testing showed a high biological uptake in the tumor and a cancer growth arrest.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27822
    Characterization and evaluation of the enzymatic activity of tetanus toxin submitted to cobalt-60 gamma radiation
    2021 - SARTORI, GISELLE P.; COSTA, ANDREA da; MACARINI, FERNANDO L. dos S.; MARIANO, DOUGLAS O.C.; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; NALI, LUIZ H. da S.; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.
    Background Tetanus toxin blocks the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and causes tetanus and its main form of prevention is through vaccination. The vaccine is produced by inactivation of tetanus toxin with formaldehyde, which may cause side effects. An alternative way is the use of ionizing radiation for inactivation of the toxin and also to improve the potential immunogenic response and to reduce the post-vaccination side effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the tetanus toxin structure after different doses of ionizing radiation of 60Co. Methods Irradiated and native tetanus toxin was characterized by SDS PAGE in reducing and non-reducing conditions and MALD-TOF. Enzymatic activity was measured by FRET substrate. Also, antigenic properties were assessed by ELISA and Western Blot data. Results Characterization analysis revealed gradual modification on the tetanus toxin structure according to doses increase. Also, fragmentation and possible aggregations of the protein fragments were observed in higher doses. In the analysis of peptide preservation by enzymatic digestion and mass spectrometry, there was a slight modification in the identification up to the dose of 4 kGy. At subsequent doses, peptide identification was minimal. The analysis of the enzymatic activity by fluorescence showed 35 % attenuation in the activity even at higher doses. In the antigenic evaluation, anti-tetanus toxin antibodies were detected against the irradiated toxins at the different doses, with a gradual decrease as the dose increased, but remaining at satisfactory levels. Conclusion Ionizing radiation promoted structural changes in the tetanus toxin such as fragmentation and/or aggregation and attenuation of enzymatic activity as the dose increased, but antigenic recognition of the toxin remained at good levels indicating its possible use as an immunogen. However, studies of enzymatic activity of tetanus toxin irradiated with doses above 8 kGy should be further analyzed.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27224
    Paratrygon aiereba irradiated anti-mucus serum reduce edematogenic activity induced in experimental model
    2020 - THOMAZI, GABRIELA O.C.; COSTA, ANDREA da; RODRIGUES, JAQUELINE P.; ALVES, GLAUCIE J.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P.; TURIBIO, THOMPSON de O.; ROCHA, ANDRE M.; AIRES, RAQUEL da S.; SEIBERT, CARLA S.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Accidents by freshwater stingrays are common in northern Brazil, there is no specific therapy for high morbidity and local tissue destruction. The irradiation of venoms and toxins by ionizing radiation has been used to produce appropriate immunogens for the production of antisera. We planned to study the efficacy of stinging mucus irradiation in the production of antisera, with serum neutralization assays of edematogenic activity and quantification of cytokines performed in animal models of immunization with native and irradiated mucus of Paratrygon aiereba, a large freshwater stingray. Antiserum potency and its cross-reactivity with mucus from other freshwater stingrays were detected by ELISA. Immunization models demonstrated the ability to stimulate a strong humoral response with elevated levels of serum IgG detectable by ELISA, and both native and irradiated mucus were immunogenic and capable of recognizing mucus proteins from other freshwater neotropical stingrays. Mucus P. aiereba causes cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses in cells of immunized mice producing antibodies and cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17. Rabbit antisera immunized with mucus from P. aiereba irradiated at 2 kGy showed a significant reduction of mucus-induced edematogenic activity in mice. Our data suggest that the use of antisera against freshwater stingray mucus show the possibility of specific therapy for these accidents.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27113
    Molecular model of cytotoxin-1 from Naja mossambica mossambica venom in complex with chymotrypsin
    2015 - MUNAWAR, AISHA; AKREM, AHMED; HUSSAIN, ASHIQ; SPENCER, PATRICK; BETZEL, CHRISTIAN
    Snake venom is a myriad of biologically active proteins and peptides. Three finger toxins are highly conserved in their molecular structure, but interestingly possess diverse biological functions. During the course of evolution the introduction of subtle mutations in loop regions and slight variations in the three dimensional structure, has resulted in their functional versatility. Cytotoxin-1 (UniProt ID: P01467), isolated from Naja mossambica mossambica, showed the potential to inhibit chymotrypsin and the chymotryptic activity of the 20S proteasome. In the present work we describe a molecular model of cytotoxin- 1 in complex with chymotrypsin, prepared by the online server ClusPro. Analysis of the molecular model shows that Cytotoxin-1 (P01467) binds to chymotrypsin through its loop I located near the N-terminus. The concave side of loop I of the toxin fits well in the substrate binding pocket of the protease. We propose Phe10 as the dedicated P1 site of the ligand. Being a potent inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, cytotoxin-1 (P01467) can serve as a potential antitumor agent. Already snake venom cytotoxins have been investigated for their ability as an anticancer agent. The molecular model of cytotoxin-1 in complex with chymotrypsin provides important information towards understanding the complex formation.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 26676
    Perfil clínico e epidemiológico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana no Hospital de Doenças Tropicais da Universidade Federal do Tocantins
    2019 - SILVEIRA, SILVESTRE J.S. da; SPENCER, PATRICK J.
    O objetivo principal deste artigo é caracterizar o Perfil Clínico e Epidemiológico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, no período de 2010 a 2016, do Hospital de Doenças Tropicais (HDT) da Universidade Federal do Tocantins no município de Araguaína-TO, área considerada endêmica para a referida doença. Como objetivos específicos, pretende-se contribuir para o conhecimento da doença nos aspectos de: a) mostrar a distribuição geográfica regional da LTA; b) caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico regional da LTA; c) retratar as formas clínicas e sua frequência na região; d) descrever os critérios diagnósticos utilizados no HDT; e d) descrever as terapêuticas empregadas para LTA no Serviço e discutir sobre os dados de acordo com a literatura atual, visto que a doença que faz parte da lista de doenças negligenciada, e as mesmas são as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 26495
    Proteomic analysis of soluble proteins retrieved from Duttaphrynus melanostictus skin secretion by IEx-batch sample preparation
    2019 - MARIANO, DOUGLAS O.C.; PREZOTTO-NETO, JOSE P.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; SCIANI, JULIANA M.; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.
    Amphibians display a toxic secretion that works as chemical defenses against predators and/or microorganisms that is stored in specialized glands located in the tegument. For some animals, such glands have accumulated in specific regions of the body and formed prominent structures known as macroglands. The Bufonidae family displays conspicuous macroglands in a post-orbital position, termed parotoids, which secretions are known to be extremely viscous and rich in alkaloids and steroids. Few proteins have been described in this material, though. Mainly, because of the difficulties to handle such biological matrix. In this context, we have performed a proteomic study on the parotoid macrogland secretion of the Asian bufonid Duttaphrynus melanostictus. By employing the Ion-Exchange (IEx)-batch chromatography (anionic, cationic and both) we obtained six fractions - bound and unbound – that were submitted to an in solution-trypsin digestion followed by LC-MS/MS. Proteins related to: antioxidant activity, binding processes (carbohydrate/lipid/protein), energy metabolism, hydrolases, lipid metabolism and membrane traffic were identified. Moreover, IEx was able to preserve the biological activity of the retrieved proteins (peptidasic). The current study increases the knowledge on the proteins present in the bufonids parotoid macrogland secretion, providing a better understanding of the physiological role played by such molecules. Significance: The current approach allowed a detailed proteomic analysis of the several proteins synthesized in the D. melanostictus parotoid macrogland (Bufonidae) that are secreted into the skins, but embedded within a complex viscous biological matrix. Moreover, our results aim to increase the knowledge on the biological role played by such proteins at the skin.