PATRICK JACK SPENCER

Resumo

Possui graduação em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (1991), mestrado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (1995) e doutorado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000) tendo sido bolsista sandwich no US Army Medical Research Institute for Infeccious Diseases (98-99). É responsável pelo Biotério de criação e manutenção de animais de laboratório do IPEN. Tem experiência na área de Bioquímica, com ênfase em Proteínas, atuando principalmente nos seguintes temas: veneno, proteínas, bothrops, irradiação e miotoxina.(Texto extraído do Currículo Lattes em 22 dez. 2021)

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Agora exibindo 1 - 10 de 96
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 30413
    Evaluation of the inhibitory potential of synthetic peptides homologous to CDR3 regions of a monoclonal antibody against bothropic venom serine proteases
    2024 - SALADINI, LUCAS Y.; MAGALHAES-JUNIOR, MARCOS J.; SILVA, CRISTIANE C.F. da; OLIVEIRA, PRISCILA G.C.; KODAMA, ROBERTO T.; GOMES, LAIS; NISHIYAMA-JUNIOR, MILTON Y.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; SILVA, WILMAR D. da; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.
    Snakebite accidents, neglected tropical diseases per the WHO, pose a significant public health threat due to their severity and frequency. Envenomation by Bothrops genus snakes leads to severe manifestations due to proteolytic enzymes. While the antibothropic serum produced by the Butantan Institute saves lives, its efficacy is limited as it fails to neutralize certain serine proteases. Hence, developing new-generation antivenoms, like monoclonal antibodies, is crucial. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory potential of synthetic peptides homologous to the CDR3 regions of a monoclonal antibody targeting a snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from B. atrox venom. Five synthetic peptides were studied, all stable against hydrolysis by venoms and serine proteases. Impressively, four peptides demonstrated uncompetitive SVTLE inhibition, with Ki values ranging from 10−6 to 10−7 M. These findings underscore the potential of short peptides homologous to CDR3 regions in blocking snake venom toxins, suggesting their promise as the basis for new-generation antivenoms. Thus, this study offers potential advancements in combatting snakebites, addressing a critical public health challenge in tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29948
    Comparing traditional and toxin-oriented approaches towards antivenom production against Bitis arietans snake venom
    2023 - GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; GODOI, KEMILY S. de; MEGALE, ANGELA A.A.; SILVA, CRISTIANE C.F. da; KODAMA, ROBERTO T.; CAJADO-CARVALHO, DANIELA; IWAI, LEO K.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.; SILVA, WILMAR D. da
    Accidents with snakes are responsible for about 32,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa, caused mostly by snakes from the genus Bitis, in particular Bitis arietans. B. arietans venom is composed of a complex mixture of toxins, mainly metalloproteases, serine proteases, phospholipases, lectins, and disintegrins. In this work, we compared two approaches to anti-B. arietans antivenom production: immunization with crude snake venom (“traditional approach”) and immunization with selected key toxins isolated from the snake venom (“toxin oriented” approach). Fractions from B. arietans venom were isolated by size exclusion chromatography. Crude venom and samples containing serine proteases or metalloproteases were selected for the immunization of BALB/c mice. Anti-B. arietans and anti-serine proteases plasmas showed a similar recognition profile and higher titers and affinity than the anti-metalloproteases plasma. Cross-recognition of other Bitis venoms was observed, but with low intensity. Although the plasma of all experimental groups inhibited the enzymatic activity of B. arietans venom in vitro, in vivo protection was not achieved. Our results have shown limitations in both approaches considered. Based on this, we proposed a model of polyclonal, species-specific, monovalent antivenoms that could be used as a base to produce customizable polyvalent sera for use in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29689
    Anti-Metalloproteases
    2023 - GODOI, KEMILY S. de; GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; SILVA, WILMAR D. da
    Bitis arietans is a medically important snake found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The envenomation is characterized by local and systemic effects, and the lack of antivenoms aggravates the treatment. This study aimed to identify venom toxins and develop antitoxins. The F2 fraction obtained from Bitis arietans venom (BaV) demonstrated the presence of several proteins in its composition, including metalloproteases. Titration assays carried out together with the immunization of mice demonstrated the development of anti-F2 fraction antibodies by the animals. The determination of the affinity of antibodies against different Bitis venoms was evaluated, revealing that only BaV had peptides recognized by anti-F2 fraction antibodies. In vivo analyses demonstrated the hemorrhagic capacity of the venom and the effectiveness of the antibodies in inhibiting up to 80% of the hemorrhage and 0% of the lethality caused by BaV. Together, the data indicate: (1) the prevalence of proteins that influence hemostasis and envenomation; (2) the effectiveness of antibodies in inhibiting specific activities of BaV; and (3) isolation and characterization of toxins can become crucial steps in the development of new alternative treatments. Thus, the results obtained help in understand
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29496
    Action of bromelain and ficin on horse anti Bothrops sp venom antibodies
    2022 - MARQUES, RODOLFO F.; QUINTILIO, WAGNER; KNIRSCH, MARCOS C.; FUCASE, TAMARA M.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; STEPHANO, MARCO A.
    The treatment with hyperimmune sera constitute the only specific and effective therapy available against snakebite envenomation, most common in developing countries. Serum quality is an important factor on patient recovery time and in the incidence of death and permanent disability. To date, most sera consist of pepsin digested IgG antibodies harvested from hyperimmune animals. The use of animal derived enzymes, such as pepsin, to digest IgG, constitute a source of adventitious agents and contaminants, such as porcine circovirus. The present study aims to evaluate the use of the plant derived enzymes bromelain and ficin, as an alternative to pepsin. To this purpose, horse serum immunized against Bothrops venoms was purified with caprylic acid and digested with bromelain or ficin. SDS-PAGE results evidence the formation of F(ab)’2 fragments and suggest that a digestion time superior to 8 hours may be required to completely digest the antibodies with bromelain or ficin. F(ab)’2 fragments obtained by digestion with either bromelain or ficin digestion preserved the ability to recognize Bothrops sp. venom in western blotting assays. Therefore, both enzymes are suitable for use in large-scale production, minimizing contamination risks and increasing safety and efficiency of serotherapy treatments.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29112
    Antibodies as snakebite antivenoms
    2022 - SILVA, WILMAR D. da; ANDRADE, SONIA A. de; MEGALE, ANGELA A.A.; SOUZA, DANIEL A. de; SANTANNA, OSVALDO A.; MAGNOLI, FABIO C.; GUIDOLIN, FELIPE R.; GODOI, KEMILY S.; SALADINI, LUCAS Y.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; PORTARO, FERNANDA C.V.
    Snakebite envenomation is considered a neglected tropical disease, affecting tens of thousands of people each year. The recommended treatment is the use of antivenom, which is composed of immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments obtained from the plasma of animals hyperimmunized with one (monospecific) or several (polyspecific) venoms. In this review, the efforts made in the improvement of the already available antivenoms and the development of new antivenoms, focusing on snakes of medical importance from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, are described. Some antivenoms currently used are composed of whole IgGs, whereas others use F(ab’)2 fragments. The classic methods of attaining snake antivenoms are presented, in addition to new strategies to improve their effectiveness. Punctual changes in immunization protocols, in addition to the use of cross-reactivity between venoms from different snakes for the manufacture of more potent and widely used antivenoms, are presented. It is known that venoms are a complex mixture of components; however, advances in the field of antivenoms have shown that there are key toxins that, if effectively blocked, are capable of reversing the condition of in vivo envenomation. These studies provide an opportunity for the use of monoclonal antibodies in the development of new-generation antivenoms. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are described as a possible alternative for the production of antivenoms, regardless of the venom. This review also highlights the challenges associated with their development.
  • Capítulo IPEN-doc 28624
    Bradykinin-potentiating and related peptides from reptile venoms
    2021 - PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.
    Evolution has provided venomous snakes with a vast arsenal of molecules able to interfere in several physiological processes. The ultimate role of these toxins, which are proteins or peptides, is to subdue the prey, although digestive functions should also be considered. Among these toxins, some are vasoactive peptides, which induce a drastic drop in blood pressure. This effect is attributed mostly to bradykinin-potentiating peptides, although other venom peptides have been shown to interfere with blood pressure. Bradykinin-potentiating peptides are modular in nature, with highly conserved motifs, and present high proline content, a pyroglutamate at the N-terminal and an IPP motif at the C-terminal. These peptides are potent and highly selective inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, a crucial molecule for blood pressure regulation, and display K i s as low as 8 nM. Besides the enzyme inhibition, some of these peptides might cross the cell membrane, interfering in the production of nitric oxide, another modulator of blood vessel tonus. Evolution frequently results in physiological redundancies. Such a fact is reflected by the occurrence of another class of blood pressure–modulating toxins. C-type natriuretic peptides can be considered as such. Apparently, these toxins increase guanylate cyclase levels, inducing vasorelaxation. These peptides are being considered as drug leads for congestive heart failure. While C-type natriuretic peptides are still under investigation as potential drugs, bradykinin-potentiating peptide–derived drugs are the boldest example of the use of a deleterious “toxin” as a building block for a cheap drug that benefits a huge number of human beings.
  • Resumo IPEN-doc 27445
    Hypanus americanus mucus
    2020 - COELHO, GUILHERME R.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P.; BARBOSA, FERNANDA C.; SANTOS, RAFAEL S.; BRIGATTE, PATRICIA; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; SAMPAIO, SANDRA C.; D'AMELIO, FERNANDA; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; SCIANI, JULIANA M.
    Fish skin plays important biological roles, such as the control of the osmotic pressure gradient, protection against mechanical forces and microorganism infections. The mucus, on the other hand, is a rich and complex fluid, important for the fish acting as innate immunity system, swimming and nutrition. The elasmobranch epidermis is characterized mainly by mucus secretory cells, and marine stingrays have already been described to present secretory glands spread throughout the body. Little is known about the biochemical composition of the stingray mucus, but recent studies denoted the importance of mucus in the envenomation process. Stingrays venom are largely studied due the human medical importance of envenoming caused by sting puncture, that evolve with local inflammation and necrosis, and these toxic events can be correlated to the chemical composition of the sting skin, according to the literature. Aiming to analyse the mucus composition, a new non-invasive mucus collection method was developed that focused on peptides and proteins, and biological assays were performed to analyze preliminary toxic and immune activities of the Hypanus americanus mucus. Pathophysiological characterization showed the presence of peptidases on mucus, as well that the induction of edema and leukocyte recruitment in mice. The fractionated mucus improved phagocytosis on macrophages and showed antimicrobial activity against T. rubrum, C. neoformans and C. albicans in vitro. The proteomic analyses showed the presence of immune-related proteins like actin, histones, hemoglobin, and ribosomal proteins. This protein pattern is similar to those reported for other fish mucus and stingray venom. This is the first report depicting the Hypanus stingray mucus composition, highlighting its biochemical composition and importance for the stingray immune system and the possible role on the envenomation process.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27224
    Paratrygon aiereba irradiated anti-mucus serum reduce edematogenic activity induced in experimental model
    2020 - THOMAZI, GABRIELA O.C.; COSTA, ANDREA da; RODRIGUES, JAQUELINE P.; ALVES, GLAUCIE J.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P.; TURIBIO, THOMPSON de O.; ROCHA, ANDRE M.; AIRES, RAQUEL da S.; SEIBERT, CARLA S.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Accidents by freshwater stingrays are common in northern Brazil, there is no specific therapy for high morbidity and local tissue destruction. The irradiation of venoms and toxins by ionizing radiation has been used to produce appropriate immunogens for the production of antisera. We planned to study the efficacy of stinging mucus irradiation in the production of antisera, with serum neutralization assays of edematogenic activity and quantification of cytokines performed in animal models of immunization with native and irradiated mucus of Paratrygon aiereba, a large freshwater stingray. Antiserum potency and its cross-reactivity with mucus from other freshwater stingrays were detected by ELISA. Immunization models demonstrated the ability to stimulate a strong humoral response with elevated levels of serum IgG detectable by ELISA, and both native and irradiated mucus were immunogenic and capable of recognizing mucus proteins from other freshwater neotropical stingrays. Mucus P. aiereba causes cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses in cells of immunized mice producing antibodies and cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17. Rabbit antisera immunized with mucus from P. aiereba irradiated at 2 kGy showed a significant reduction of mucus-induced edematogenic activity in mice. Our data suggest that the use of antisera against freshwater stingray mucus show the possibility of specific therapy for these accidents.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27113
    Molecular model of cytotoxin-1 from Naja mossambica mossambica venom in complex with chymotrypsin
    2015 - MUNAWAR, AISHA; AKREM, AHMED; HUSSAIN, ASHIQ; SPENCER, PATRICK; BETZEL, CHRISTIAN
    Snake venom is a myriad of biologically active proteins and peptides. Three finger toxins are highly conserved in their molecular structure, but interestingly possess diverse biological functions. During the course of evolution the introduction of subtle mutations in loop regions and slight variations in the three dimensional structure, has resulted in their functional versatility. Cytotoxin-1 (UniProt ID: P01467), isolated from Naja mossambica mossambica, showed the potential to inhibit chymotrypsin and the chymotryptic activity of the 20S proteasome. In the present work we describe a molecular model of cytotoxin- 1 in complex with chymotrypsin, prepared by the online server ClusPro. Analysis of the molecular model shows that Cytotoxin-1 (P01467) binds to chymotrypsin through its loop I located near the N-terminus. The concave side of loop I of the toxin fits well in the substrate binding pocket of the protease. We propose Phe10 as the dedicated P1 site of the ligand. Being a potent inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, cytotoxin-1 (P01467) can serve as a potential antitumor agent. Already snake venom cytotoxins have been investigated for their ability as an anticancer agent. The molecular model of cytotoxin-1 in complex with chymotrypsin provides important information towards understanding the complex formation.
  • Resumo IPEN-doc 26933
    Redução da atividade edematogênica promovida pelo muco da raia de água doce Paratrygon aiereba utilizando soro produzido contra o muco irradiado com raios gama de 60Co
    2016 - THOMAZI, G.O.C.; PREZOTTO NETO, J.P.; ALVES, G.J.; TURIBIO, T.O.; AIRES, R.S.; ROCHA, A.M.; SEIBERT, C.S.; SPENCER, P.J.; NASCIMENTO, N.
    Introdução: As raias são peixes peçonhentos com ampla distribuição geográfica nos principais rios brasileiros e merecem destaque por estarem frequentemente associadas a acidentes em seres humanos. Estes agravos são frequentes na região Norte do país e favorecidos pelo hábito desses peixes de permanecerem em repouso no fundo arenoso ou lamacento de águas rasas e pela frequente utilização humana dos rios, seja por lazer ou atividades ocupacionais. Os ferimentos provocados pelos ferrões das raias são dolorosos, de difícil cicatrização, causam necroses extensas e fenômenos sistêmicos. O muco que recobre toda a extensão do corpo desses peixes pode aumentar a gravidade desses ferimentos. A escassez de estudos voltados para o tratamento específico das lesões oriundas dos agravos por esses peixes, a ausência de estudos com outros gêneros de raias dulcícolas e a possibilidade de produção de soro contra o veneno de raias estimularam o desenvolvimento deste estudo utilizando a radiação ionizante que tem se mostrado vantajosa na atenuação de toxinas animais, resultando na obtenção de melhores imunógenos para a produção de soros. Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar o potencial neutralizante dos soros anti-mucoda raia Paratrygonaierebanativo ou irradiado (2 kGy-60Co) contra a ação edematogênicado muco nativo. Método: Mediante aprovação da CEUA/IPEN/SP n°126/2013 e do ICMBion.º 45407-1/2014 foi desenvolvido este trabalho. O muco (50μg/mL) de P. aierebafoi incubado em banho-maria com os soros anti-muconativo ou soro anti-mucoirradiado diluídos de 1:100 ou 1:1.000 (soros de coelhos imunizados contra o muco nativo ou irradiado por 60Co de P. aiereba). Após a incubação, as amostras foram injetadas (30μL) no coxim plantar da pata posterior de camundongos Swissmachos, 18 a 20g, (n=30). A interferência na atividade edematogênicafoi verificada nos tempos de 1h, 2h, 4h e 24h após a inoculação. Em todos os animais foi verificado o volume inicial individual de cada pata antes da injeção das amostras. Os volumes foram mensurados em pletismômetroe os resultados expressos como a variação do volume em relação ao volume basal em μL por período (ExpBioMed. 239:601, 2014). A avaliação estatística foi realizada pela análise de variância com auxílio do softwareGraphPadPrism5.0. Resultados: O muco de P. aierebafoi capaz de induzir edema de 1h a 4h após a inoculação, com declínio de 4 a 24h (p<0,01 em relação aos controles). O soro anti-muconativo não foi capaz de inibir a formação do edema nas diluições testadas, sem diferença estatística com o edema induzido pelo muco (p>0,05). O soro anti-mucoirradiado diluído 1:100 apresentou interferência significativa na atividade edematogênicanas primeiras quatro horas (p<0,01). O soro anti-mucoirradiado 1:1000 foi capaz de diminuir a formação de edema nas 1ª e 4ª horas (p<0,01). O edema foi reduzido pelo soro anti-mucoirradiado pré-incubado com o muco não irradiado (nativo). Conclusão: Esse resultado mostra que além do muco irradiado ser capaz de estimular a proliferação de células de memória, ou seja, a produção de anticorpos IgGespecíficos, estas imunoglobulinas são capazes de reconhecer a fração responsável pela atividade edematogênica. Estes resultados nos permite concluir que o processo de irradiação tornou o muco da raia P. aierebamais antigênico.