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  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29882
    Scavenger receptors mediate increased uptake of irradiated T.gondii extracts by J774 macrophages
    2023 - COSTA, ANDREA da; CARVALHO, CAMILA A. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de
    Purpose Protein extracts developed increased immunogenicity without the aid of adjuvants after gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation of snake venom increased antivenin production by detoxification and enhanced immunity, probably due preferential uptake of irradiated venoms by macrophage scavenger receptors. We studied this uptake of irradiated soluble Toxoplasma gondii extract (STag) by the J774 macrophage cell line similar to antigen presenting cells. Material And Methods We labeled STag by biosynthesis in living tachyzoites with radioactive amino acids before purification and irradiation or by adding labels as biotin or fluorescein in stored STag, for quantitative studies or subcellular distribution visualization. Results There was enhanced binding and uptake of irradiated STag into the cells compared to non-irradiated STag. Using fluorescein labeled antigens and morphological assays, we confirmed that cells avidly ingested both native and irradiated proteins but native STag were digested after ingestion while irradiated proteins remained in the cell, suggesting diverse intracytoplasmic pathways. Native or irradiated STag present the same in vitro sensitivity to three types of peptidases. Inhibitors of scavenger receptors (SRs) such as Dextran sulfate (SR-A1 blocker) or Probucol (SR-B blocker) affect the specific uptake of irradiated antigens, suggesting its association with enhanced immunity. Conclusions Our data suggests that cell SRs recognize irradiated proteins, mainly SRs for oxidized proteins, leading to antigen uptake by an intracytoplasmic pathway with fewer peptidases that prolongs presentation to nascent major histocompatibility complex I or II and enhances immunity by better antigen presentation.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27471
    Radiation effects on Toxoplasma antigens
    2020 - COSTA, ANDREA da; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; PASSOS, ALINE B.D. dos; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de
    Purpose: Purpose: Protein irradiation causes aggregation, chain breakage, and oxidation, enhancing its uptake by antigen-presenting cells. To evaluate if irradiated proteins participate on the protection, we studied the immune response induced in mice immunized with irradiated soluble extracts of T. gondii tachyzoites (STag) or irradiated intact T. gondii RH tachyzoites (RH0.25 kGy). Material and Methods: Soluble extracts of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (STag) were irradiated at different dose by Cobalt-60 source. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page) we evaluated the effects on primary structures of protein STags induced by irradiation. By Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) we evaluated the difference between humoral immune response induced by irradiated STag or RH tachyzoites in immunized mice from the detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the serum of immunized mice. From challenge with viable RH strain of T. gondii we evaluated the protection induced in the immunized animals. By cytometry we performed the phenotyping of T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of the immunized animals. Results: Irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy induced minimal changes in most proteins, without affecting their antigenicity or immunogenicity. Immunization showed saturation at the dose of 10 µg/mice, with worst response at higher doses. STag irradiated at 1.5  kGy (STag1.5 kGy) induced higher survival and protection similar to T. gondii RH strain irradiated at 0.25 kGy (RH0.25 kGy), with higher serum levels of high affinity IgG compared to STag native. Blood immune memory cells of mice immunized with STag1.5 kGy had higher proportions of CD19+ (cluster of differentiation 19) and CD4+ (cluster of differentiation 14) cells, whereas mice RH0.25 kGy had high proportion of memory CD8+ (cluster of differentiation 8) cells. Conclusions: Our data suggest that major histocompatibility complex type I (MHCI) pathway, appears seem to be used by RH0.25 kGy to generate cytotoxic cells while STag1.5 kGy uses a major histocompatibility complex type II (MHCII) pathway for B-cell memory, but both induce sufficient immune response for protection in mice without any adjuvant. Irradiation of soluble protein extracts enhances their immune response, allowing similar protection against T. gondii in mice as compared to irradiated intact parasites.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27224
    Paratrygon aiereba irradiated anti-mucus serum reduce edematogenic activity induced in experimental model
    2020 - THOMAZI, GABRIELA O.C.; COSTA, ANDREA da; RODRIGUES, JAQUELINE P.; ALVES, GLAUCIE J.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P.; TURIBIO, THOMPSON de O.; ROCHA, ANDRE M.; AIRES, RAQUEL da S.; SEIBERT, CARLA S.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Accidents by freshwater stingrays are common in northern Brazil, there is no specific therapy for high morbidity and local tissue destruction. The irradiation of venoms and toxins by ionizing radiation has been used to produce appropriate immunogens for the production of antisera. We planned to study the efficacy of stinging mucus irradiation in the production of antisera, with serum neutralization assays of edematogenic activity and quantification of cytokines performed in animal models of immunization with native and irradiated mucus of Paratrygon aiereba, a large freshwater stingray. Antiserum potency and its cross-reactivity with mucus from other freshwater stingrays were detected by ELISA. Immunization models demonstrated the ability to stimulate a strong humoral response with elevated levels of serum IgG detectable by ELISA, and both native and irradiated mucus were immunogenic and capable of recognizing mucus proteins from other freshwater neotropical stingrays. Mucus P. aiereba causes cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses in cells of immunized mice producing antibodies and cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17. Rabbit antisera immunized with mucus from P. aiereba irradiated at 2 kGy showed a significant reduction of mucus-induced edematogenic activity in mice. Our data suggest that the use of antisera against freshwater stingray mucus show the possibility of specific therapy for these accidents.