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  • Artigo IPEN-doc 27224
    Paratrygon aiereba irradiated anti-mucus serum reduce edematogenic activity induced in experimental model
    2020 - THOMAZI, GABRIELA O.C.; COSTA, ANDREA da; RODRIGUES, JAQUELINE P.; ALVES, GLAUCIE J.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P.; TURIBIO, THOMPSON de O.; ROCHA, ANDRE M.; AIRES, RAQUEL da S.; SEIBERT, CARLA S.; SPENCER, PATRICK J.; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Accidents by freshwater stingrays are common in northern Brazil, there is no specific therapy for high morbidity and local tissue destruction. The irradiation of venoms and toxins by ionizing radiation has been used to produce appropriate immunogens for the production of antisera. We planned to study the efficacy of stinging mucus irradiation in the production of antisera, with serum neutralization assays of edematogenic activity and quantification of cytokines performed in animal models of immunization with native and irradiated mucus of Paratrygon aiereba, a large freshwater stingray. Antiserum potency and its cross-reactivity with mucus from other freshwater stingrays were detected by ELISA. Immunization models demonstrated the ability to stimulate a strong humoral response with elevated levels of serum IgG detectable by ELISA, and both native and irradiated mucus were immunogenic and capable of recognizing mucus proteins from other freshwater neotropical stingrays. Mucus P. aiereba causes cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses in cells of immunized mice producing antibodies and cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17. Rabbit antisera immunized with mucus from P. aiereba irradiated at 2 kGy showed a significant reduction of mucus-induced edematogenic activity in mice. Our data suggest that the use of antisera against freshwater stingray mucus show the possibility of specific therapy for these accidents.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 25811
    Pharmacokinetics of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate in Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice
    2019 - BORBOREMA, SAMANTA E.T.; OSSO JUNIOR, JOAO A.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp. Pentavalent antimonial agents have been used as an effective therapy, despite their side effects and resistant cases. Their pharmacokinetics remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of meglumine antimoniate in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis using a radiotracer approach. Methods: Meglumine antimoniate was neutron-irradiated inside a nuclear reactor and was administered once intraperitoneally to uninfected and L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Different organs and tissues were collected and the total antimony was measured. Results: Higher antimony levels were found in infected than uninfected footpad (0.29% IA vs. 0.14% IA, p = 0.0057) and maintained the concentration. The animals accumulated and retained antimony in the liver, which cleared slowly. The kidney and intestinal uptake data support the hypothesis that antimony has two elimination pathways, first through renal excretion, followed by biliary excretion. Both processes demonstrated a biphasic elimination profile classified as fast and slow. In the blood, antimony followed a biexponential open model. Infected mice showed a lower maximum concentration (6.2% IA/mL vs. 11.8% IA/mL, p = 0.0001), a 2.5-fold smaller area under the curve, a 2.7-fold reduction in the mean residence time, and a 2.5-fold higher clearance rate when compared to the uninfected mice. Conclusions: neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate concentrates in infected footpad, while the infection affects antimony pharmacokinetics.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 25063
    Pharmacokinetic of meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-liposomes in mice model
    2018 - BORBOREMA, SAMANTA E.T.; OSSO JUNIOR, JOAO A.; TEMPONE, ANDRE G.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp. Meglumine antimoniate (MA) is the main treatment and has demonstrated a promising efficacy in a VL-model when encapsulated into negatively charged liposomes. Considering the current concept for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters at early phases of drug discovery, we developed a formulation of MA-encapsulated into phosphatidylserine liposomes (MA-LP) and analyzed the in vitro antileishmanial activity, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic profile in a mice model. The liposomal formulation had an internal mean diameter of 114 nm and a high stability in plasma. MA-LP was 23-fold more in vitro effective against Leishmania infantum-infected macrophages than the free drug, with a selectivity index higher than 220. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the liposomes increased the uptake of the drug by the liver and spleen and promoted sustained levels. MA-LP was first eliminated through renal excretion, followed by biliary excretion. In the blood, MA-LP followed a biexponential open model. This work emphasizes the importance of liposomes as potential drug delivery systems for visceral leishmaniasis.