EDUARDO LANDULFO

Resumo

Bachelor's at Bacharelado Em Física from Universidade de São Paulo (1989), master's at Nuclear Engineering from Universidade de São Paulo (1992) and doctorate at Nuclear Engineering from Universidade de São Paulo (1997). He is currently full professor at Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Has experience in Geosciences, focusing on Remote Sensing, acting on the following subjects: lidar, lidar raman, aerosols, air pollution and sensoriamento remoto. (Text obtained from the Currículo Lattes on October 8th 2021)


Possui graduação em Bacharelado Em Física pela Universidade de São Paulo (1989), mestrado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (1992) e doutorado em Tecnologia Nuclear pela Universidade de São Paulo (1997). Atualmente, épesquisador titular do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear), e ministrante de disciplina de pos-graduaçao oferecida a Universidade de São Paulo . Tem experiência anterior na área d e Fisica Nulcear, com enfase a Espectroscopia Gama, e , desde 1997 atua na area de Geociências, com ênfase em Sensoriamento Remoto com Lasers, atuando principalmente nos seguintes temas: lidar, aerossóis, sensoriamento remotocom lasers e poluição do ar. (Texto extraído do Currículo Lattes em 08 out. 2021)

Projetos de Pesquisa
Unidades Organizacionais
Cargo

Resultados de Busca

Agora exibindo 1 - 10 de 225
  • Resumo IPEN-doc 30273
    Microfluidic circuit applied to the concentration of 18F for the production of radiopharmaceuticals
    2023 - GOMES, ANTONIO A.; NARIO, ARIAN P.; LAPOLLI, ANDRE L.; LANDULFO, E.; BERNARDES, EMERSON S.; ROSSI, WAGNER de
    Introduction: Microfluidics is becoming a promising technology for synthesizing [18F]-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, reducing costs, reagents, and increasing activity [1]. Conversely, current commercial production of such radiopharmaceuticals for clinical diagnosis by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging requires dedicated and expensive equipment, only available in specialized facilities to produce only one type of 18F radiopharmaceutical [2]. So, as the demand for PET increases, the use of microfluidics becomes essential for this commercial production, and, in this sense, this work presents the results of a developed “micro-cartridge” microfluidic chip applied to the 18F retention and elution process that can improve all the production aspects. Methodology: The micro-cartridge was machined in borosilicate optical glass – BK7 using the ultrashort pulse laser ablation technique. After micromachining, the micro-cartridge is filled with the same resin used in the conventional anionic synthesis cartridge (Waters Accel Plus QMA Light cartridge). Both are later submitted to comparative performance tests to evaluate the radiochemical efficiency in the 18F retention and elution phase between them. Results and discussion: Four comparative tests were performed for both phases (first stage of synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 18F), with activities (55.5 ± 11.1 Mbq and 9.2 ± 0.4 Gbq; n = 2). The results showed that the micro-cartridge is equivalent to the conventional cartridge (QMA Plus Light) in the retention phase, presenting a radiochemical efficiency of 99.3% ± 0.7 vs 99.6% ± 0.3, respectively. However, in the 18F elution phase, the micro-cartridge showed a radiochemical efficiency of 93% ± 0.2, and the conventional cartridge had a maximum of 77.4% ± 15.5, showing the great advantage of the micro-cartridge. The hypothesis that supports the superiority of the results of micro-cartridge efficiencies in the elution phase is the high surface-volume ratio, which leads to the prevalence of surface phenomena such as mass transfers and faster reaction syntheses, which occur in microfluidic systems. Although the microfluidic systems studied for radiopharmaceuticals have existed for almost 20 years, the use of the ultrashort pulse laser technique and the type of material used in the micro-cartridge development are not commonly reported. Conclusions: Integrating an anion exchange micro-cartridge on a chip with the ultrashort pulse laser ablation technique opens the door to smaller, and more efficient radiopharmacy chips for producing 18F radiopharmaceuticals. The first unprecedented experimental results in Brazil demonstrate that the initial stages of production of ready-to-use doses for humans (pre-concentration of fluorine) can be carried out with greater efficiency in the elution parameters of 18F compared to synthesis with a conventional cartridge.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 30209
    Comparison of PBL heights from ceilometer measurements and greenhouse gases concentrations in São Paulo
    2023 - SANTOS, AMANDA V. dos; ARAUJO, ELAINE C.; ANDRADE, IZABEL da S.; CORREA, THAIS; MARQUES, MARCIA T.A.; SOUTO-OLIVEIRA, CARLOS E.; LEONARDO, NOELE F.; MACEDO, FERNANDA de M.; SOUZA, GIOVANNI; LOPES, PEROLA P. de Q.; MOREIRA, GREGORI de A.; ANDRADE, MARIA de F.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO
    This paper presents a study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, where the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) was determined using ceilometer data and the wavelet covariance transform method. The retrieved PBLH values were subsequently compared with the concentrations of CO2 and CH4 measured at three distinct experimental sites in the city. The period of study was July 2021. This study also included a comparison between ceilometer data and lidar data, which demonstrated the favorable applicability of the ceilometer data for PBLH estimation. An examination of the correlation between changes in average CO2 concentrations and PBLH values revealed stronger correlations for the IAG and UNICID stations, with correlation coefficients (ρ) of approximately −0.86 and −0.85, respectively, in contrast to the Pico do Jaraguá station, which exhibited a lower correlation coefficient of −0.42. When assessing changes in CH4 concentrations against variations in PBL height, the retrieved correlation coefficients were approximately −0.78 for IAG, −0.66 for UNICID, and −0.38 for Pico do Jaraguá. The results indicated that CO2/CH4 concentrations are negatively correlated with PBL heights, with CO2 concentrations showing more significant correlation than CH4 . Additionally, among the three measurement stations, IAG measurements displayed the most substantial correlation. The results from this study contribute to the understanding of the relationship between PBLH and greenhouse gas concentrations, emphasizing the potential of remote sensing systems like ceilometers in monitoring and studying atmospheric processes.
  • Resumo IPEN-doc 30026
    Microfluídica, uma tecnologia aplicada à concentração de 18F para produção de radiofármacos
    2023 - GOMES, ANTONIO A.; NARIO, ARIAN P.; LAPOLLI, ANDRE L.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; BERNARDES, EMERSON S.; ROSSI, WAGNER de
    Introdução. O uso de radiofármacos marcados com 18F para o diagnóstico clínico por imagem PET (tomografia por emissão de pósitrons) de diversas doenças tem aumentado consideravelmente. O maior radiofármaco aplicado a diagnósticos com PET é o [18F]-2-desoxi-2-fluoro-D-glicose (FDG) e a sua preparação requer a utilização de equipamentos especializados (e caros) para proteger o farmacêutico que o prepara. Assim, à medida que a demanda de radiofármacos PET aumentar, colocará uma pressão significativa nas instalações de produção de traçadores PET, a qual necessitará de investimento em novas tecnologias de produção de radiofármacos. Uma tecnologia chave desenvolvida nos últimos tempos tem sido o uso de sistemas microfluídicos. Os dispositivos microfluídicos oferecem muitas vantagens para a síntese de radiofármacos de curta duração (por exemplo, 18F)tais como: reações mais rápidas, transferência de calor eficiente, alta relação superfície – volume e rendimentos mais elevados. Embora os sistemas microfluídicos estudados para radiofármacos existam há quase 20 anos, no Brasil, até onde sabemos, esta tecnologia e estudo é inédita. Objetivos. Apresentar os primeiros resultados no desenvolvimento de um chip microfluídico para uma “microcoluna” destinada ao processo de retenção e eluição de 18F. Metodologia. A microcoluna foi usinada em vidro óptico de borosilicato – BK7 utilizando a técnica de ablação com laser de pulsos ultracurtos. Após a microusinagem, a microcoluna é preenchida com a mesma resina utilizada no cartucho convencional de síntese “Sep-Pak Accell Plus QMA Plus Light” da fabricante Waters™. Ambas são posteriormente submetidas a testes de desempenho comparativos de eficiência na fase de retenção e eluição de 18F. Resultados. Foram realizados 4 testes comparativos para ambas as fases (primeira etapa da síntese de 18F-FDG), com atividades (1,5 ± 0,3 mCi e 248 ± 11 mCi; “n = 2”). Os resultados demostraram que a eficiência da microcoluna é equivalente à da coluna convencional (QMA Plus Light) na fase de retenção (99,3% ± 0,67 vs99,6% ± 0,32). No entanto, na fase de eluição de 18F, houve uma diferença significativa entre ambas (99,93% ±0,18 vs 77,38% ± 15,54), destacando a grande vantagem da microcoluna. Conclusão. A integração do cartucho de troca iônica em um chip, com a técnica de ablação com laser de pulso ultracurto, abre as portas para chips de radiofarmácia menores e mais eficientes para a produção de 18F-FDG e outros compostos. Os resultados experimentais inéditos no Brasil demonstram que as etapas iniciais da produção de doses prontas para humanos (pré-concentração de flúor) podem ser realizadas com uma eficiência superior nos parâmetros de eluição do 18Fem comparação a síntese com cartucho convencional.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29945
    Impact of extreme wildfires from the Brazilian Forests and sugarcane burning on the air quality of the biggest megacity on South America
    2023 - SOUTO-OLIVEIRA, CARLOS E.; MARQUES, MARCIA T.A.; NOGUEIRA, THIAGO; LOPES, FABIO J.S.; MEDEIROS, JOSE A.G.; MEDEIROS, ILCA M.M.A.; MOREIRA, GREGORI A.; DIAS, PEDRO L. da S.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; ANDRADE, MARIA de F.
    Recently, extreme wildfires have damaged important ecosystems worldwide and have affected urban areas miles away due to long-range transport of smoke plumes. We performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify how smoke plumes from Pantanal and Amazon forests wildfires and sugarcane harvest burning also from interior of the state of São Paulo (ISSP) were transported and injected into the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), where they worsened air quality and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) levels. To classify event days, multiple biomass burning fingerprints as carbon isotopes, Lidar ratio and specific compounds ratios were combined with back trajectories modeling. During smoke plume event days in the MASP fine particulate matter concentrations exceeded the WHO standard (>25 μg m−3 ), at 99 % of the air quality monitoring stations, and peak CO2 excess were 100 % to 1178 % higher than non-event days. We demonstrated how external pollution events such as wildfires pose an additional challenge for cities, regarding public health threats associated to air quality, and reinforces the importance of GHG monitoring networks to track local and remote GHG emissions and sources in urban areas.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29870
    Collaborative development of the Lidar Processing Pipeline (LPP) for retrievals of atmospheric aerosols and clouds
    2023 - PALLOTTA, JUAN V.; CARVALHO, SILVANIA A. de; LOPES, FABIO J. da S.; CACHEFFO, ALEXANDRE; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; BARBOSA, HENRIQUE M.J.
    Atmospheric lidars can simultaneously measure clouds and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution and hence help understand cloud–aerosol interactions, which are the source of major uncertainties in future climate projections. However, atmospheric lidars are typically custom-built, with significant differences between them. In this sense, lidar networks play a crucial role as they coordinate the efforts of different groups, provide guidelines for quality-assured routine measurements and opportunities for side-by-side instrument comparisons, and enforce algorithm validation, all aiming to homogenize the physical retrievals from heterogeneous instruments in a network. Here we provide a high-level overview of the Lidar Processing Pipeline (LPP), an ongoing, collaborative, and open-source coordinated effort in Latin America. The LPP is a collection of tools with the ultimate goal of handling all the steps of a typical analysis of lidar measurements. The modular and configurable framework is generic enough to be applicable to any lidar instrument. The first publicly released version of the LPP produces data files at levels 0 (raw and metadata), 1 (averaging and layer mask), and 2 (aerosol optical properties). We assess the performance of the LPP through quantitative and qualitative analyses of simulated and measured elastic lidar signals. For noiseless synthetic 532 nm elastic signals with a constant lidar ratio (LR), the root mean square error (RMSE) in aerosol extinction within the boundary layer is about 0.1 %. In contrast, retrievals of aerosol backscatter from noisy elastic signals with a variable LR have an RMSE of 11 %, mostly due to assuming a constant LR in the inversion. The application of the LPP for measurements in São Paulo, further constrained by co-located AERONET data, retrieved a lidar ratio of 69.9 ± 5.2 sr at 532 nm, in agreement with reported values for urban aerosols. Over the Amazon, analysis of a 6 km thick multi-layer cirrus found a cloud optical depth of about 0.46, also in agreement with previous studies. From this exercise, we identify the need for new features and discuss a roadmap to guide future development, accommodating the needs of our community.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29837
    Chemical characterization and optical properties of the aerosol in São Paulo, Brazil
    2023 - VIEIRA, ERICK V.R.; ROSARIO, NILTON E. do; YAMASOE, MARCIA A.; MORAIS, FERNANDO G.; MARTINEZ, PEDRO J.P.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; MIRANDA, REGINA M. de
    : Air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is a serious problem and is strongly affected by local sources. However, atmosphere column composition in MASP is also affected by biomass burning aerosol (BB). Understanding the impacts of aerosol particles, from both vehicles and BB, on the air quality and climate depends on in-depth research with knowledge of some parameters such as the optical properties of particles and their chemical composition. This study characterized fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from July 2019 to August 2020 in the eastern part of the MASP, relating the chemical composition data obtained at the surface and columnar optical parameters, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström Exponent (AE), and single-scattering albedo (SSA). According to the analyzed data, the mean PM2.5 concentration was 18.0 ± 12.5 µg/m3 ; however, daily events exceeded 75 times the air quality standard of the World Health Organization (15 µg/m3 ). The mean black carbon concentration was 1.8 ± 1.5 µg/m3 in the sampling period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified four main sources of aerosol: heavy vehicles (42%), followed by soil dust plus local sources (38.7%), light vehicles (9.9%), and local sources (8.6%). AOD and AE presented the highest values in the dry period, during which biomass burning events are more frequent, suggesting smaller particles in the atmosphere. SSA values at 440 nm were between 0.86 and 0.94, with lower values in the winter months, indicating the presence of more absorbing aerosol.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29836
    Analyzing the influence of vehicular traffic on the concentration of pollutants in the city of São Paulo
    2023 - MOREIRA, GREGORI de A.; CACHEFFO, ALEXANDRE; ANDRADE, IZABEL da S.; LOPES, FABIO JULIANO da S.; GOMES, ANTONIO A.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO
    This study employs surface and remote sensing data jointly with deep learning techniques to examine the influence of vehicular traffic in the seasonal patterns of CO, NO2 , PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations in the São Paulo municipality, as the period of physical distancing (March 2020 to December 2021), due to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the resumption of activities, made it possible to observe significant variations in the flow of vehicles in the city of São Paulo. Firstly, an analysis of the planetary boundary layer height and ventilation coefficient was performed to identify the seasons’ patterns of pollution dispersion. Then, the variations (from 2018 to 2021) of the seasonal average values of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and thermal inversion occurrence/position were compared to identify possible variations in the patterns of such variables that would justify (or deny) the occurrence of more favorable conditions for pollutants dispersion. However, no significant variations were found. Finally, the seasonal average concentrations of the previously mentioned pollutants were compared from 2018 to 2021, and the daily concentrations observed during the pandemic period were compared with a model based on an artificial neural network. Regarding the concentration of pollutants, the primarily sourced from vehicular traffic (CO and NO2 ) exhibited substantial variations, demonstrating an inverse relationship with the rate of social distancing. In addition, the measured concentrations deviated from the predictive model during periods of significant social isolation. Conversely, pollutants that were not primarily linked to vehicular sources (PM2.5 and PM10) exhibited minimal variation from 2018 to 2021; thus, their measured concentration remained consistent with the prediction model.
  • Resumo IPEN-doc 29661
    Side-pumped, high beam-quality Nd:YLF amplifier for LIDAR applications
    2005 - WETTER, NIKLAUS U.; CAMARGO, FABIOLA de A.; RANIERI, IZILDA M.; BALDOCHI, SONIA L.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29626
    Simultaneous profiling of dust aerosol mass concentration and optical properties with polarized high-spectral-resolution lidar
    2023 - XIAO, DA; WANG, NANCHAO; CHEN, SIJIE; WU, LINGYUN; MULLER, DETLEF; VESELOVSKII, IGOR; LI, CHENGCAI; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; SIVAKUMAR, VENKATARAMAN; LI, JING; CHE, HUIZHENG; FANG, JING; ZHANG, KAI; WANG, BINYU; CHEN, FEITONG; HU, XIANZHE; LI, XIAOTAO; LI, WEIZE; TONG, YICHENG; KE, JU; WU, LAN; LIU, CHONG; LIU, DONG
    Dust particles originating from arid desert regions can be transported over long distances, presenting severe risks to climate, environment, social economics, and human health at the source and downwind regions. However, there has been a dearth of continuous diurnal observations of vertically resolved mass concentration and optical properties of dust aerosols, which hinders our understanding of aerosol mixing, stratification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and their impacts on the environment. To fill the gap of the insufficient observations, to the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) observation providing days of continuous profiles of the mass concentration, along with particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR), backscattering coefficient, extinction coefficient and lidar ratio (LR), simultaneously. We present the results of two strong dust events observed by HSRL over Beijing in 2021. The maximum particle mass concentrations reached (1.52 ± 3.5) x103 μg/m3 and (19.48 ± 0.36) x103 μg/m3 for the two dust events, respectively. The retrieved particle mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) agree well with the observation from the surface PM10 concentrations and sun photometer with correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. The intensive properties of PLDR and LR of the dust aerosols are 0.31 ± 0.02 and 39 ± 7 sr at 532 nm, respectively, which are generally close to those obtained from observations in the downwind areas. Moreover, inspired by the observations from HSRL, a universal analytical relationship is discovered to evaluate the proportion of dust aerosol backscattering, extinction, AOD, and mass concentration using PLDR. The universal analytical relationship reveals that PLDR can directly quantify dust aerosol contribution, which is expected to further expand the application of polarization technology in dust detection. These valuable observations and findings further our understanding of the contribution of dust aerosol to the environment and help supplement dust aerosol databases.
  • Artigo IPEN-doc 29348
    Determination of parameters for micromachining of microfluidic mixers with complex geometry in glass using ultra-short laser pulse
    2022 - GOMES, ANTONIO A.; VIANNA JUNIOR, ARDSON dos S.; MOREIRA, GREGORI de A.; LANDULFO, EDUARDO; SAMAD, RICARDO E.; BERNARDES, EMERSON S.; ROSSI, WAGNER de
    Femtosecond laser micromachining was adopted to make a glass mixer with complex geometry. This special design promotes more efficient mixing in microreactor with gas-liquid flux at low flow rates, compared to conventional serpentine mixers.